Individual identification of Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) based on dorsal wart patterns

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Uddalak Tathagato Bindhani
Abhijit Das


The dorsal surface of Duttaphrynus melanostictus is covered with keratinized warts of various sizes and shapes.  Using combinations and patterns of cranial and mid dorsal warts, we attempted to identify individual toads from a natural population as a non-invasive alternative to existing marking techniques based on toe clipping, pit tagging, and subcutaneous elastomer injections to facilitate population estimates.  An accuracy of 100% identification was achieved via this method, making it a potent tool for population studies in this species that is faster, cheaper and less disruptive than standard marking techniques.

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Author Biographies

Uddalak Tathagato Bindhani, Forest Research Institute (Deemed) University, Forest Research Institute, P. O. New Forest, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248006, India

Mr. Uddalak Tathagato Bindhani is Project Fellow (Ecology) in the project entitled ‘Population Management of species involved in Human-Wildlife Conflict’, at the Wildlife Institute of India. He is interested in understanding the effects of anthropogenic activities on the behavioural ecology of wild fauna

Abhijit Das, Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box #18, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248001, India

Dr. Abhijit Das is Scientist/Faculty with the Department of Endangered Species Management, Wildlife Institute of India. His research interests lie in understanding the evolutionary origin and diversification of Himalayan herpetofauna.


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