Main Article Content
The time budget and behavioural patterns of Gelada were studied on the Gich Plateau of the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia.Â The plateau is dominated mainly by Afroalpine grasses and the endemic giant Lobelia rhynchopetalum.Â Gich lies on the climatic and altitudinal limits of the Geladaâ€™s geographical distribution.Â Activity data were collected using continuous focal animal scan sampling method during 10 consecutive days each month (from May 2013 to April 2014).Â Data were recorded for different age/sex classes.Â The Gelada spent on average 56.7% of daylight hours feeding, 14.1% travelling, 10.7% resting, 17.5% socializing and 1.1% in other non-social activity.Â There was seasonal variation in activity budgets, indicating a significant increase in time allocation for feeding activity, but a decrease in resting time during the dry season.Â The age/sex classes showed variation in activity budgets, except for social activity.ÂÂ
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27220.127.116.1153-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227â€“267; http://dx.doi.org/stable/4533591
Brownikowski, A.M. & J. Altmann (1996). Foraging in a variable environment: weather patterns and the ecology of baboons. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 39: 11â€“25; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650050262
Coelho, A.M. (1986). Time and energy budgets, pp. 141â€“166. In: Mitchell, G. & J. Erwin (eds.). Comparative Primate Biology: Behaviour, Conservation and Ecology. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Crook, J.H. (1966). Gelada herd structure and movement, a comparative report. Symposia of Zoological society of London 18: 237â€“258.
Dasilva, G.L. (1992). The Western Black-and-white Colobus as a low-energy strategist: activity budgets, energy expenditure and energy intake. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 79â€“91.
Di Fiore, A. (2003). Ranging behaviour and foraging ecology of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in YasunÄ±Â´ National Park, Ecuador. American Journal of Primatology 59: 47â€“66; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.10065
Dunbar, R.I.M. (1988). Primate Social Systems. Cornell University Press, New York.
Dunbar, R.I.M. (1992). Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioural ecology of baboons. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 31: 35â€“49; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00167814
Dunbar, R.I.M. (1998). Impact of global warming on the distribution and survival of the Gelada Baboon: a modeling approach. Global Change Biology 4: 293â€“304; http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1998.00156.x
Dunbar, R.I.M. & U. Bose (1991). Adaptation to grass-eating in Gelada Baboons. Primates 32: 1â€“7; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381596
Dunbar, R.I.M. & E.P. Dunbar (1988). Maternal time budget of Gelada Baboons. Animal Behaviour 36: 970â€“980; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(88)80055-1
Gebremedhin, B., G.F. Ficetola, S. Naderi, H.R. Rezaei, C. Maudet, D. Rioux, G. Luikart, O. Flagstad, W. Thuiller & P. Taberlet (2009). Combining genetic and ecological data to assess the conservation status of the endangered Ethiopian Walia Ibex. Animal Conservation 12: 89â€“100; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00238.x
Halle, S. & N.C. Stenseth (2000). Introduction, pp. 3â€“17. In: Halle, S. & N.C. Stenseth (eds.). Activity Patterns in Small Mammals: An Ecological Approach. Springer, Berlin.
Hunter, C.P. (2001). Ecological determinants of Gelada ranging patterns (Theropithecus gelada). PhD Thesis. The University of Liverpool, xiii+225pp.
Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young (1993). Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of Vervet Monkeys and their implications for group living. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 32: 377â€“385; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00168821
Iwamoto, T. & R.I.M. Dunbar (1983). Thermoregulation, habitat quality and the behavioural ecology of Gelada Baboons. Journal of Animal Ecology 52: 357â€“366; http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4559
Kawai, M., R.I.M. Dunbar, H. Ohsawa & U. Mori (1983). Social organization of Gelada Baboons: social units and definitions. Primates 24: 13â€“24; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381450
Mangel, M. & C.W. Clark (1986). Towards a unified foraging theory. Ecology 67: 1127â€“1138; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745
Milton, K. (1998). Physiological ecology of Howlers (Alouatta): energetic and digestive considerations and comparison with the Colobinae. International Journal of Primatology 19: 513â€“547; http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:102036452321
Mori, A. & G. Belay (1990). The distribution of baboon species and a new population of Gelada Baboon along the Wabi-Shebeli River, Ethiopia. Primates 31: 495â€“508; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02382533
Ohsawa, H. (1979). Herd dynamics, pp. 47â€“80. In: Kawai, M. (ed.). Ecological and Sociological Studies of Gelada baboons. Karger, Tokyo.
Shanee, S. & N. Shanee (2011). Activity budget and behavioural patterns of free-ranging Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkeys Oreonax flavicauda (Mammalia: Primates), at La Esperanza, northeastern Peru. Contributions to Zoology 80: 269â€“277;
Stanford, C.B. (1991). The capped langur in Bangladesh: behavioural ecology and reproductive tactics. Contributions to Primatology 26: 1â€“179; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02192782
Terborgh, J. (1983). Five New World Primates: A Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton.