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The Tiger Panthera tigris is one of the most charismatic and well known Asian big cats. In the lowlands of Nepal, Tigers along with the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis and the Asiatic Elephant Elephas maximus serve as ﬂagship species gathering global conservation attention. Current surveys estimate a population of 235 tigers in Nepal. Tigers in Nepal are strictly protected in five protected areas located in the lowlands and their adjoining forest areas which cover 7,668.20 km2. However, over the last century, tiger population and their distribution range drastically declined with the species heading towards extinction. The long-term survival of this charismatic species is challenging largely due to the loss and fragmentation of habitat, climate change, increasing human-wildlife interface and poaching for illegal trade of body parts. In response to this, the Government of Nepal along with conservation agencies and local communities have proceeded to execute various conservation initiatives both at national and international level. This paper tries to scrutinize the current status of tiger population, conservation efforts, and existing challenges to conserve tiger species in Nepal.
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