Wild ungulates in Jordan: past, present, and forthcoming opportunities

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Ehab Eid
David Mallon


Twelve species of ungulates are reported from the wild in Jordan. Three of these, Addax nasomaculatus (Addax), Bos primigenius (Aurochs), and Cervus elaphus (Red Deer) are known only from archaeological excavations. Dama mesopotamica (Mesopotamian Fallow Deer), Oryx leucoryx (Arabian Oryx) and Equus hemionus hemippus (Syrian Wild Ass) have been regionally extirpated in the wild. A semi-captive population of Persian Onager (E. h. hemionus) is held in Shumari Wildlife Reserve. The Arabian Oryx is also managed in semi-captive conditions in two reserves. Except the commonly occurring Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), other surviving ungulate species continue to be under serious threat. Gazella gazella (Palestinian Mountain Gazelle), Capreolus capreolus (European Roe Deer), Gazella marica (Arabian Sand Gazelle), and Gazella dorcas (Dorcas Gazelle) are Critically Endangered, and Capra nubiana (Nubian Ibex) is Endangered in the region. This paper provides a review of the historical and current status of wild ungulates in Jordan, listing the threats and conservation measures and provides recommendations for management and conservation in the future.

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