Additions to the sea snail fauna (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of Lakshadweep Islands, India

Main Article Content

B.K. Sneha Chandran
R. Ravinesh
A. Biju Kumar


Among the 373 species of opisthobranchs reported from India, 92 are from Lakshadweep.  This paper documents 11 species of opisthobranch fauna from Lakshadweep Islands, classified under the families Haminoeidae, Colpodaspididae, Volvatellidae, Dendrodorididae, Chromodorididae, Goniodorididae, Embletoniidae, and Tergipedidae, of which five are new records to India.  Goniobranchus rufomaculatus and Volvatella ventricosa are reported for the first time from the western Indian Ocean.

Article Details

Short Communications
Author Biography

A. Biju Kumar, University of Kerala

Head of the Department


Alder, J. & A. Hancock (1864). Notice of a collection of nudibranchiate Mollusca made in India by Walter Elliot Esq., with descriptions of several new genera and species. Transactions of Zoological Society 5: 113–147.

Appukuttan, K.K., A. Chellam, K. Ramdoss, A.C.C. Victor & M.M. Meiyappan (1989). Molluscan resources, pp. 77–92. In: Suseelan, C. (ed.). Marine Living Resources of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep: An Indicative Survey with Suggestions for Development. Bulletin 43, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi, Kerala, 256pp.

Apte, D. (2009).Opisthobranch fauna of Lakshadweep Islands, India with 52 new records to Lakshadweep and 40 new records to India. Part 1. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 106(2): 162–175.

Apte, D. (2012). Field Guide to the Marine Life of India. Stusa Mudra Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, 502pp.

Apte, D. & V. Bhave (2014). New records of opisthobranchs from Lakshadweep, India (Mollusca: Heterobranchia). Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(3): 5562–5568;

Apte, D. & D. Desai (2017). Field Guide to Opisthobranchs of India. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 459pp.

Apte, D. & V.K. Salahuddin (2011). Record of Hexabranchus sanguineus (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828) from Lakshadweep Archipelago, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 107(3): 261–262.

Apte, D., V. Bhave & D. Parasharya (2010). An annotated and illustrated checklist of the Opisthobranch fauna of Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat, India With 21 new records for Gujarat and 13 New Records for India: Part 1. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 107(1): 14–23.

Apte, D., V. Bhave, R. Pitale, P. Nagale & A. Prasade (2012). A Preliminary Report on Diversity of Coastal Ecosystems of Maharashtra Part 3: Ecologically Sensitive Coastal Areas of Ratnagiri, Rajapur and Vijaydurga. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 173pp.

Beesoo, R., V.N. Bhujun, R. Bhagooli & T. Bahorun (2014). Apoptosis inducing lead compounds isolated from marine organisms of potential relevance in cancer treatment. Mutation Research 768: 84–97.

Bergh, L.S.R. (1874). Neue Nacktschnecken der Sudsee. 2. Journal de Museum Gudeffroy 2: 91–116.

Bhave, V. & D. Apte (2011). Illustrated Checklist of Opisthobranch Fauna of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India, with Eight New Records to India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 108(3): 172–182.

Bhave, V. & D. Apte (2013). Current status of Indian Opisthobranch fauna, pp. 63–79. In: Venkataraman, K., C. Sivaperuman & C. Raghunathan (eds.). Ecology and Conservation of Tropical Marine Faunal Communities. Springer, London, 481pp.

Brodie G.D. & J.E. Brodie (1990). A checklist of the opisthobranch molluscs of Fiji. Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 11: 53–63.

Brown G.H. (1979). An investigation of the anatomy of Colpodaspis pusilla (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) and a description of a new species of Colpodaspis from Tanzanian coastal waters. Journal of Zoology 187: 201–

Carlson, C. & P.J. Hoff (2003). The opisthobranchs of the Mariana Islands. Micronesica 35: 271–293.

Carmona, L., J.L. Cervera, A.B. Kumar & B.K.S. Chandran (2016). First Record of the Aeolid Anteaeolidiella fijensis (Nudibranchia, Aeolidiidae) from India. Marine Biodiversity 47(3): 823–830;

Carmona, L., V. Bhave, R. Salunkhe, M. Pola, T.M. Gosliner & J.L. Cervera (2014). Systematic review of Anteaeolidiella (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Aeolidiidae) based on morphological and molecular data, with a description of three new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 171: 108–132.

Debelius, H. & H.R. Kuiter (2007). Nudibranchs of The World. IKAN-Unterwasser-archiv, Frankfurt, 360pp.

Eliot, C. (1903). Nudibranchiata, with some remarks on the families and genera and description of a new genus Doridomorpha, pp. 540–573. In: Gardiner, S.J. (ed.). Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes. Cambridge University Press, London, 589pp.

Gosliner, T.M. (1987). Nudibranchs of Southern Africa - A Guide to Opisthobranch Molluscs of Southern Africa. SeaChallengers, Montere, 136pp.

Gosliner, T.M. & S.J. Fahey (2008). Systematics of Trapania (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae) with descriptions of 16 new species. Systematics and Biodiversity 6(1): 53–98;

Gosliner, T.M., D.W. Behrens & A. Valdes (2008). Indo-Pacific Nudibranchs and Sea Slugs: A Field Guide to the World’s Most Diverse Fauna. Sea Challengers Natural History Books, USA, 426pp.

Gray, M.E. (1850). Figures of Molluscous Animals, Selected from Various Authors. Etched for the Use of Students. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, London, 4: 1–124.

Heller, J. & T.E. Thompson (1983). Opisthobranch molluscs of the Sudanese Red Sea. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 78: 317–348.

Hornell, J. (1921). Common molluscs of south India, appendix Molluscan fauna of the Laccadive Islands. Madras Fishery Bulletin 14(6): 213–215.

Ingram, W.M. (1939). Atys semistriata Pease in Kaneohoe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Nautilus 52: 117–120.

Jensen, K.R. (2015). Sacoglossa (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from northern coasts of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 31: 226–249.

Jensen, K.R. & F.E. Wells (1990). Sacoglossa (= Ascoglossa) (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) from southern Western Australia, pp. 297–331. In: Wells, F.E., D.I. Walker, H. Kirkman & R. Lethbridge (eds.). Proceedings of the Third International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Albany, Western Australia. Volume 1. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Johnson, R.F. & T.M. Gosliner (2012). Traditional taxonomic groupings mask evolutionary history: a molecular phylogeny and new classiï¬cation of the chromodorid nudibranchs. PLoS ONE 7: 1–15.

Kuroda, T. & T. Habe (1952). Checklist and Bibliography of the recent marine Mollusca of Japan. Leo W Stach, Tokyo, 210pp.

Matsuda, S.B. & T.M. Gosliner (2017). Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes. Cladistics 2017: 1–16;

Mehrotra, R. & C.M. Scott (2016) Species inventory of sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) for Koh Tao, Thailand, with 25 first records for Thai waters. Marine Biodiversity 46: 761–771;

Miller, M.C. & R.C. Willan (1991). Redescription of Embletonia gracile Risbec, 1928 (Nudibranchia: Embletoniidae): relocation to suborder Dendronotacea with taxonomic and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Molluscan Studies 58: 1-12.

Nagabhushanam, A.K. & G.C. Rao (1972). An Ecological Survey of the Marine Fauna of Minicoy Atoll (Laccadive Archipelago, Arabian Sea Spezielle Zoologie 48(2): 265–324.

Namboodiri, P.N. & P. Sivadas (1979). Zonation of molluscan assemblage at Kavaratti Atoll (Lacccadives). Mahasagar 12(2): 239–246.

Pease, W.H. (1860). Descriptions of new species of Mollusca from the Sandwich Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 28: 18–36.

Pease, W.H. (1871). Descriptions of new species of nudibranchiate Mollusca inhabiting Polynesia. No. 2. American Journal of Conchology 7(1): 11–19, pls 3–9.

Raghunathan, C., C. Sivaperuman & Ramakrishna (2010). An account of newly recorded five species of nudibranchs (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda) in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, pp. 283–288. In: Ramakrishna, C.

Raghunathan & C. Sivaperuman (eds.). Recent trends in biodiversity of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 542pp

Ramakrishna, C.R. Sreeraj, C. Raghunathan, C. Sivaperuman, J.S. Yogesh Kumar, R. Raghuraman, T. Immanuel & P.T. Rajan (2010). Guide to Opisthobranchs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 198pp.

Rao, K.V., P. Sivadas & L.K. Kumary (1974). On three rare doridiform nudibranch molluscs from Kavaratti Lagoon Laccadive Islands. Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 16(1): 113–125.

Rao, K.V. & N.V. Rao (1991). Mollusca, pp. 273–362. In: Ghosh, A.K. & A. Kumar (eds.). State Fauna Series 2, Fauna of Lakshadweep. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 413pp.

Rao, N.V.S. (2003). Indian Sea shells (Part-I): Polyplacophora and Gastropoda. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 416pp.

Ravinesh, R. & A. Bijukumar (2015). A Checklist of the Marine Molluscs of Lakshadweep, India. Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries 3: 15–55.

Ravinesh, R., B.K. Snehachandran & A. Bijukumar (2013). Record of the dendrodorid slug, Dendrodoris coronata (Nudibranchia: Dendrodorididae) from Western Indian Ocean. Journal of Marine Biodiversity Records 6: e116;

Risbec, J. (1928). Contribution à l’étude des nudibranches Néo-Calédoniens. Faune des Colonies Françaises 2: 1–328.

Rudman, W.B. (1981). Further studies on the anatomy and ecology of opisthobranch molluscs feeding on the scleractinian coral Porites. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 71: 373–412.

Rudman, W.B. (1986). The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo West Pacific: Noumea purpurea and Chromodoris decora colour groups. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 86: 309–353.

Rudman, W.B. (1987). The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo-West Pacific: Chromodoris epicuria, C. aureopurpurea, C. annulata, C. coi and Risbecia tryoni colour groups. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 90: 305–407.

Rudman, W.B. (1990). The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo-West Pacific: further species of Glossodoris, Thorunna and the Chromodoris aureomarginata colour group. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 100(3): 263–326.

Rudman, W.B. (1998). Dendrodoris denisoni (Angas, 1864). In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from [accessed on 13 December 2014.]

Rudman, W.B. (2000a). (May 24) Atys semistriata Pease, 1860. In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. available from [accessed on 24 May 2015.]

Rudman, W.B. (2000b).Colpodaspis thompsoni Brown, 1979. In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from [accessed on 3 February 2015.]

Rudman, W.B. (2000c). Chromodoris conchyliata Yonow, 1984. In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. available from [accessed on 5 April 2015.]

Rudman, W.B. (2002). (September 11) Embletonia gracilis Risbec, 1928. In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. available from [accessed on 11 September 2015.]

Rudman, W.B. ( 2008). (March 10) Trapania euryeia Gosliner& Fahey,

 In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. [accessed on10 March 2015.]

Sakthivel, M. (1974). A new species of Creseis (Gastropoda, Mollusca) from the Laccadive Sea. Current Science 43: 619–620.

Shaktivel, G., H. Mohan & T. Ganesh (2014). Additions to the Knowledge of Shallow-Water Opisthobranch Molluscs. International Journal of Science and Nature 5(2): 249–253.

Smith, E.A. (1903). Marine Mollusca, pp. 589–630. In: Gardiner, S.J. (ed.). Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes Vol II Part II. Cambridge University Press, London.

Sreeraj, C.R., C. Sivaperuman & C. Raghunathan (2012). An annotated checklist of opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(4): 2499–2509;

Sreeraj, C.R., C. Sivaperuman & C. Raghunathan (2013). Species Diversity and Reef Environments of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, pp. 81–106. In: Venkataraman, K.,C. Sivaperuman & C. Raghunathan (eds.). Ecology and Conservation of Tropical Marine Faunal Communities. Springer, London, 481pp.

Susan, V.D., N.G.K. Pillai & P. Satheeshkumar (2012). A checklist and spatial distribution of Molluscan fauna in Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 4(5): 449-453;

Tibiriçá, Y. & M.A.E. Malaquias (2016). The bubble snails (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) of Mozambique: an overlooked biodiversity hotspot. Marine Biodiversity 47(3): 791–811;

Too, C.C., C. Carlson, P.J. Hoff & M.A. Malaquias (2014). Diversity and systematics of Haminoeidae gastropods (Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea) in the tropical West Pacific Ocean: new data on the genera Aliculastrum, Atys, Diniatys and Liloa. Zootaxa 3794(3): 355–392;

Valdés , A. & J.S. Fahey (2006). Dorid nudibranchs described by J.E. Gray, 1842–1857 (Mollusca : Opisthobranchia). Records of the western Australian Museum Supplement 69: 95–102.

Venkataraman, K., C. Raghunanthan, R. Raghuraman & S. Dixit (2015). Fascinating Sea slugs and Flatworms of Indian Seas. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 149pp.

Wägele, H. & R.C. Willan (2000). Phylogeny of the Nudibranchia. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 130(1): 83–181;

Yonow, N. (1984). Doridacean nudibranchs from Sri Lanka, with descriptions of four new species. The Veliger 26(4): 214–228.

Yonow, N. ( 1994). Opisthobranchs from the Maldive Islands, including descriptions of seven new species (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Revue française d’aquariologie herpétologie 20 (4): 97–130.

Yonow, N. (2000). Red Sea Opisthobranchia. 4. The orders Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Notaspidea, and Nudibranchia: Dendronotacea and Aeolidacea. Fauna of Arabia 18: 87–131.

Yonow, N. (2008). Sea Slugs of the Red Sea. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-

Moscow, 304pp.

Yonow, N. (2012). Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records Mollusca, Gastropoda. ZooKeys 197: 1–129;

Yonow, N. (2015). Sea Slugs: unexpected biodiversity and distribution, pp. 531–550. In: Rasul, N.M.A. & I.C.F. Stewart (eds.). The Red Sea - The Formation, Morphology, Oceanography and Environment of a Young Ocean Basin. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany.