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Russula scarlatina sp. nov. is a common sequestrate fungus found in the dry sclerophyll Eucalyptus woodlands of southeastern Australia. Basidiomata are hypogeous or sometimes emergent; they are scarlet in youth and become dark sordid red or brown with advanced age. Historically, this species would have been placed in the genus Gymnomyces, but in light of recent revisions in the taxonomy of sequestrate Russulaceae, we place it in the genus Russula. It is morphologically distinct from other sequestrate species of Russula because of its scarlet peridium and unusual cystidial turf in youth. It has been collected only in dry grassy woodlands and open forest habitats of southeastern Australia.
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