Diversity, distribution, and abundance status of small mammalian fauna (Chiroptera: Rodentia: Eulipotyphla) of Manipur, India

Main Article Content

Uttam Saikia
A.B. Meetei


The three mammalian orders Chiroptera, Rodentia, and Eulipotyphla constitute the bulk of small mammalian species. In spite of their diversity, numerical preponderance, and widespread distribution, they are the least explored mammals with serious information gap on the diversity and distribution especially in the context of northeastern India. To partially fill this crucial information gap, we conducted two extensive field surveys covering nine districts of Manipur state during 2019 and 2021 resulting in the collection of 62 examples of these groups. Besides, 12 additional examples of bats and shrews from Manipur deposited at the North Eastern Regional Centre (NERC) of ZSI, Shillong and two specimens of rodents deposited in Manipur University  in recent times were also examined. Based on these voucher records and field evidences, we report the presence of 38 species of small mammals from the state including 27 species of bats, 10 species of rodents and one species of shrew. Out of these, 12 species of bats have been recorded for the first time from the state. It is expected that the present inventory will expand with further surveys as fossorial rodents and shrews were not adequately sampled during the present studies. 

Article Details



Agrawal, V.C. (2000). Taxonomic studies on Indian Muridae and Hystricidae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 180, 180 pp.

Amori, G. & S. Gippoliti (2000).What do mammalogists want to save? Ten years of mammalian conservation biology. Biodiversity and Conservation 9(6): 785–793.

Bates, P.J.J. & D.L. Harrison (1997). The Bats of Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum Publications, Sevenoaks, 258 pp.

Bates, P.J.J., T. New, S.S.H. Bu, K.M. Mie, K.M. Swe, N. Nyo, A.A. Khaing, N.N. Aye, Y.Y. Toke, N.N. Aung, M.M. Thi & I. Mackie (2005). A review of genera Myotis, Ia, Pipistrellus, Hypsugo, and Arielulus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Myanmar (Burma), including three new to the country. Acta Chiropterologica 7(2): 205–236

Blanford, W.T. (1891). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon, Burma. Mammalia. Part III. Francis and Taylor, London, 617pp.

Chakravarty R., M. Ruedi & F. Ishtiaq (2020). A recent survey of bats with descriptions of echolocation calls and new records from the western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. Acta Chiropterologica 22(1): 197–224. https://doi.org/10.3161/15081109ACC2020.22.1.019

Corbet, G.B. & J.E. Hill (1992). The Mammals of Indo-Malayan Region. Oxford University Press, UK, 488 pp.

Chingangbam, D., J.M. Laishram, B.S. Naorem, L. Taibangjam & B. Chingakham (2014). Karyotupe evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus of Manipur, India. African Journal of Biotechnology 13(53): 4733–4744.

Chingangbam, D., J.M. Laishram, B.S. Naorem, S.H. Wani, B. Chingakham & T. Loidang (2014). Two new records of genus Rattus from Manipur. The Asian Journal of Animal Science 9(1): 59–67.

Csorba, G., P. Ujhelyi & N. Thomas (2003). Horseshoe bats of the World (Chiroptera:Rhinolophidae). Alana Books, 160 pp.

Fleming, T.H., C. Geiselman & W.J. Kress (2009). The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective. Annals of Botany 194(6): 1017–1043. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp197

Giannini, N.P., G.F. Gunnell, J. Habersetzer & N.B. Simmons (2012). Early evolution of body size in bats, pp. 530–555. In: Gunnell, G.F. & N.B. Simmons (eds). Evolutionary History of Bats: Fossils, Molecules, and Morphology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 572 pp.

Lidicker, W. (2011). “The Biology of Mammals” BioScience 61(2): 155–157.

Mandal, A.K., A.K. Poddar & T.P. Bhattacharyya (1993). Records of Megaerops niphanae, Hipposideros lankadiva and H. armiger armiger from Manipur, India with taxonomic notes. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3–4): 355–359.

Mandal, A.K., A.K. Poddar & T.P. Bhattacharyya (1994). Occurrence of the Szechuan Burrowing Shrew Anourosorex squamipes in Manipur, India with taxonomic notes. Science and Culture 60(1–6): 55–56

Mandal, A.K., A.K. Poddar & T.P Bhattacharyya (2005). Mammalia, pp. 17–63. In: State Fauna Series 10: Fauna of Manipur Part 1. Zoological Survey of India, 234 pp.

MASTEC (2022). Modern climate - Manipur Science and Technology Council. https://www.mastec.nic.in › modern-climate. Downloaded on 21 April 2022.

Menon, V. (2014). Indian Mammals: A Field Guide. Hachette India, 522 pp.

Mistry, S. (2014) Protecting the Bats of India Signs of progress amid daunting challenge. Bats 21(2): 8–11.

Ruedi, M., J. Biswas, O.M. Chachula & T. Arbenz (2012). A winter survey of bats from the Jaintia Hills with a synopsis of their diversity in Meghalaya, pp. 87–105. In: Arbenz T. (ed). Cave pearls of Meghalaya. Vol I Pala Range and Kopili Valley, Abode of Cloud Project. Switzerland, 265 pp.

Roonwal, M.L. (1950). Contribution to the fauna of Manipur state, Assam, Part III. Mammals with special reference to the family Muridae (Order: Rodentia). Records of the Indian Museum 47(1): 1–64

Saikia, U., G. Csorba & M. Ruedi (2017). First records of Hypsugo joffrei (Thomas, 1915) and the revision of Philetor brachypterus (Temminck, 1840) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Indian Subcontinent. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 124(1): 83–89

Saikia, U., A. Thabah & M. Ruedi (2020). Taxonomic and ecological notes on some poorly known bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Meghalaya, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(3): 15311–15325. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5264.12.3.15311-15325

Saikia, U., A. Thabah, O.M. Chachula & M. Ruedi (2018). The bat fauna of Meghalaya, Northeast India: Diversity and Conservation. pp. 263-286. In: Sivaperuman and Venkataraman (eds.). Indian Hotspots: Vertebrate faunal diversity, conservation and management, Vol 2. Springer Nature Singapore Pvt Ltd., Singapore, 354 pp.

Saikia, U., G. Ngaomei & A.B. Meetei (2019). Some noteworthy bat (Mammalia: Chiroptera) records from Manipur State, Northeastern India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 120(1): 41–48.

Saikia, U., M. Ruedi, R. Chakravarty & H.C. Chaudhary (2021). Bats of Meghalaya. Forest and Environment Department, Meghalaya and Zoological Survey of India, 180 pp.

Singh, C., A. Ibemhal, N. Singh, J.M. Laishram & B. Singh (2011). Biodiversity of rat species in Manipur. NeBio 2: 23–26.

Sinha, Y.P. (1994). Occurrence of Dobson’s Long-tongued Fruit Bat Eonysteris spelaea (Dobson, 1871) in Manipur and Nagaland, India. Geobios New Reports 13: 186–187

Sinha, Y.P. (1986). The Bats of Bihar: taxonomy and field ecology. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 77: 60.

Sinha, Y.P. (1999). Contribution to the knowledge of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of North East Hills, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 174: 52.

Srinivasulu, C., P.A. Racey & S. Mistry (2010). A key to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(7): 11210–11217. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2352.1001-76

Tschumi, M., J. Ekroos, C. Hjort, H. Smith & K. Birkhofer (2018). Rodents, not birds, dominate predationrelated ecosystem services and disservices in vertebrate communities of agricultural landscapes. Oecologia 188: 863–873. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-018-4242-z