Main Article Content
Protected areas are considered important for biodiversity conservation, however, studies have shown that habitats outside protected areas can also support high diversity and are important for biodiversity conservation. In this context, we compared the bird diversity between protected (Rani Taal in Shuklaphanta National Park) and non-protected (Sati Karnali Taal) wetlands in western Nepal. Bird surveys were conducted from February to August 2019, using open width point count method in 100 m intervals along transects. A total of 122 species belonging to 18 orders and 44 families were recorded from the protected wetland, and 107 species belonging to 16 orders and 41 families from the non-protected wetland area. Insectivores had high abundance in both wetlands (43% and 47% in protected and non-protected wetlands, respectively). Forest-dependent birds were more abundant in protected wetland compared to non-protected wetland. Our study showed that both protected and non-protected wetlands along with agricultural landscapes, support a richness of birds. Hence priority should be given to both wetlands for the conservation of birds.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Adhikari, J.N., B.P. Bhattarai & D.N. Dhakal (2018a). Conservation value of Beeshhazari Lake: an insight into diversity and abundance of wetland birds. Our Nature 16(1): 17–26. https://doi.org/10.3126/on.v16i1.21563
Adhikari, J.N., B.P. Bhattarai & T.B. Thapa (2018b). Diversity and conservation threats of water birds in and around Barandabhar corridor forest, Chitwan, Nepal. Journal of Natural History Mesuem 30: 164–179. https://doi.org/10.3126/jnhm.v30i0.27553
Adhikari, J.N., B.P. Bhattarai & T.B. Thapa (2019). Factors affecting diversity and distribution of threatened birds in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(5): 13511–13522. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4184.108.40.20611-13522
Baral, H.S. & C. Inskipp (2009). The birds of Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Our Nature 7(1): 56–81. https://doi.org/10.3126/on.v7i1.2554
Baral, H.S. & C. Inskipp (2020). Birds of Nepal: Their Status and Conservation Especially with Regards to Watershed Perspectives, pp. 435–458. In: Regmi, G.R. & F. Huettmann (eds.). Hindu Kush-Himalaya Watersheds Downhill: Landscape Ecology and Conservation Perspectives. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36275-1_22
Basnet, T.B., M.B. Rokaya, B.P. Bhattarai & Z. Munzbergova (2016). Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150498. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150498
BCN & DNPWC (2016). Birds of Nepal: An Official Checklist. Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN) and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC), Kathmandu, Nepal, 40 pp.
Bibby, C.J., N.D. Burgess, D.A. Hill & S. Mustoe (2000). Bird census techniques. Academic Press, Elsevier, 302 pp.
Brotherton, S., C.B. Joyce & J.P. Scharlemann (2020). Global offtake of wild animals from wetlands: critical issues for fish and birds. Hydrobiologia 847: 1631–1649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-020-04188-z
Chakravarty, S., S. Ghosh, C. Suresh, A. Dey & G. Shukla (2012). Deforestation: causes, effects and control strategies, pp. 1–26. In: Shukla, G. (eds.). Global perspectives on sustainable forest management. Intech Rijeka, Croatia, 315 pp.
Chape, S., J. Harrison, M. Spalding & I. Lysenko (2005). Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360(1454): 443–455. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1592
Chaudhary, S., Y. Wang, A.M. Dixit, N.R. Khanal, P. Xu, B. Fu, K. Yan, Q. Liu, Y. Lu & M. Li (2020). A synopsis of farmland abandonment and its driving factors in Nepal. Land 9(3): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9030084
Cox, R.L. & E.C. Underwood (2011). The importance of conserving biodiversity outside of protected areas in Mediterranean ecosystems. PLoS ONE 6(1): e14508. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014508
Dahal, B.R., C.A. McAlpine & M. Maron (2014). Bird conservation values of off-reserve forests in lowland Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 323: 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.03.033
Dahal, B.R., C.A. McAlpine & M. Maron (2015). Impacts of extractive forest uses on bird assemblages vary with landscape context in lowland Nepal. Biological Conservation 186: 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.014
Datta, T. (2011). Human interference and avifaunal diversity of two wetlands of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(12): 2253–2262. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2739.2253-62
de Silva, T.N., S. Fernando, H.B. de Silva & P. Tennakoon (2015). Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Horsfield, 1821 (Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) in the dry lowlands of Sri Lanka: distribution, ecology, and threats. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(14): 8089–8095. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.24220.127.116.1189-8095
DNPWC (2020). Protected areas of Nepal. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal. Downloaded on 20 January 2020. http://www.dnpwc.gov.np
Dudgeon, D., A.H. Arthington, M.O. Gessner, Z.I. Kawabata, D.J. Knowler, C. Lévêque, R.J. Naiman, A.-H. Prieur-Richard, D. Soto & M.L. Stiassny (2006). Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81(2): 163–182. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1464793105006950
Dudley, N., C. Groves, K.H. Redford & S. Stolton (2014). Where now for protected areas? Setting the stage for the 2014 World Parks Congress. Oryx 48(4): 496–503. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605314000519
Edwards, D.P., J.J. Gilroy, P. Woodcock, F.A. Edwards, T.H. Larsen, D.J. Andrews, M.A. Derhe, T.D. Docherty, W.W. Hsu, S.L. Mitchell, T. Ota, L.J. Williams, W.F. Laurance, K.C. Hamer & D.S. Wilcove (2014). Land-sharing versus land-sparing logging: reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation. Globle Change Biology 20(1): 183–191. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12353
Elsen, P.R., R. Kalyanaraman, K. Ramesh & D.S. Wilcove (2017). The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter. Conservation Biology 31(2): 416–426. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12812
Finch, T., S. Gillings, D. Massimino, T. Brereton, J. Redhead, R. Pywell, R. Field, A. Balmford, R. Green & W. Peach (2020). Assessing the utility of land sharing and land sparing for birds, butterflies and ecosystem services in lowland England. Natural England Commissioned Report NECR280, 73 pp.
Fisher, R.A. & F. Yates (1943). Statistical Tables: For Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research. Second edition. Oliver and Boyd Ltd, London, 105 pp.
Geist, J. (2011). Integrative freshwater ecology and biodiversity conservation. Ecological Indicators 11(6): 1507–1516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.002
Green, R.E., S.J. Cornell, J.P. Scharlemann & A. Balmford (2005). Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307(5709): 550–555. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1106049
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp & T. Inskipp (2016a). Birds of the Indian Subcontinent: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and the Maldives. Bloomsbury Publishing, 448 pp.
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp, T. Inskipp & H.S. Baral (2016b). Birds of Nepal: Revised Edition. Bloomsbury Publishing, India, 386 pp.
Harisha, M.N. & B.B. Hosetti (2018). Status and conservation issues of wetland birds in Komaranahalli lake, Davanagere district, Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(2): 11290–11294. http://doi.org/110.11609/jott.2809.10.2.11290-11294
Haslem, A. & A.F. Bennett (2008). Birds in agricultural mosaics: the influence of landscape pattern and countryside heterogeneity. Ecological Applications 18(1): 185–196. https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0692.1
Hulme, M.F., J.A. Vickery, R.E. Green, B. Phalan, D.E. Chamberlain, D.E. Pomeroy, D. Nalwanga, D. Mushabe, R. Katebaka & S. Bolwig (2013). Conserving the birds of Uganda’s banana-coffee arc: land sparing and land sharing compared. PLoS ONE 8(2): e54597. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597
Inskipp, C., H.S. Baral, T. Inskipp, A.P. Khatiwada, M.P. Khatiwada, L.P. Poudyal & R. Amin (2017). Nepal’s National Red List of birds. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(1): 9700–9722. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2818.104.22.16800-9722
Katuwal, H.B., K. Basnet, B. Khanal, S. Devkota, S.K. Rai, J.P. Gajurel, C. Scheidegger & M.P. Nobis (2016). Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158362. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158362
Khatiwada, J.R., J.N. Adhikari, D. Adhikari, S. Sapkota, S.R. Ghimire, P.B. Budha & L.N. Sharma (2019). Assessment and conservation status of aquatic biodiversity in lower Karnali and Mahakali River basin. Forest Action Nepal, USAID Pani Program, 116 pp.
Khatiwada, J. R., J.N., Adhikari, D., Rijal & L.N. Sharma (2021). Freshwater biodiversity in western Nepal: A review. Nepalese Journal of Zoology 5(1): 34–46. https://doi.org/10.3126/njz.v5i1.38290
Khatri, N.D., B. Neupane, Y.P. Timilsina & S. Ghimire (2019). Assessment of Avifaunal diversity and threats to them in Phewa wetland, Nepal. Forestry: Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal 16: 31–47. https://doi.org/10.3126/forestry.v16i0.28352
Kumar, A. (2005). Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation. Zoological Survey of India, Dehradun, India, 472 pp.
Lamb, A., T. Finch, J.W. Pearce‐Higgins, M. Ausden, A. Balmford, C. Feniuk, G. Hirons, D. Massimino & R.E. Green (2019). The consequences of land sparing for birds in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Ecology 56(8): 1870–1881. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13362
Lamsal, P., K. Atreya, M.K. Ghosh & K.P. Pant (2019). Effects of population, land cover change, and climatic variability on wetland resource degradation in a Ramsar listed Ghodaghodi Lake Complex, Nepal. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191(7): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7514-0
Ostfeld, A., S. Barchiesi, M. Bonte, C.R. Collier, K. Cross, G. Darch, T.A. Farrell, M. Smith, A. Vicory & M. Weyand (2012). Climate change impacts on river basin and freshwater ecosystems: some observations on challenges and emerging solutions. Journal of Water and Climate Change 3(3): 171–184. https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2012.006
Paracuellos, M. (2006). Relationships of songbird occupation with habitat configuration and bird abundance in patchy reed beds. ARDEA 94(1): 87–98.
R Development Core Team (2019). A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Rodrigues, A.S., H.R. Akcakaya, S.J. Andelman, M.I. Bakarr, L. Boitani, T.M. Brooks, J.S. Chanson, L.D. Fishpool, G.A. Da Fonseca & K.J. Gaston (2004). Global gap analysis: priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. BioScience 54(12): 1092–1100. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[1092:GGAPRF]2.0.CO;2
Šálek, M., M. Bažant & M. Żmihorski (2018). Active farmsteads are year‐round strongholds for farmland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology 55(4): 1908–1918. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13093
Schulte, L.A., A.L. MacDonald, J.B. Niemi & M.J. Helmers (2016). Prairie strips as a mechanism to promote land sharing by birds in industrial agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 220: 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.01.007
Shannon, C.E. (1948). Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal 27(3): 379–424. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x
Sharma, L.N. & O.R. Vetaas (2015). Does agroforestry conserve trees? A comparison of tree species diversity between farmland and forest in mid-hills of central Himalaya. Biodiversity Conservation 24(8): 2047–2061. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-015-0927-3
Shrestha, U.B., S. Shrestha, P. Chaudhary & R.P. Chaudhary (2010). How representative is the protected areas system of Nepal? Mountain Research and Development 30(3): 282–294. https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-10-00019.1
Simpson, E.H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature 163(4148): 688–688. https://doi.org/10.1038/163688a0
Siwakoti, M. & J.B. Karki (2009). Conservation status of Ramsar sites of Nepal Terai: an overview. Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science 6: 76–84. https://doi.org/10.3126/botor.v6i0.2914
Tamme, R., I. Hiiesalu, L. Laanisto, R. Szava‐Kovats & M. Pärtel (2010). Environmental heterogeneity, species diversity and co‐existence at different spatial scales. Journal of Vegetation Science 21(4): 796–801. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01185.x
Terborgh, J., C. van Schaik, L. Davenport & M. Rao (2002). Making Parks Work: Strategies for Preserving Tropical Nature. Island Press, 511 pp.
UNEP-WCMC, IUCN & NGS (2018). Protected Planet Report 2018. UNEP-WCMC, IUCN and NGS, Cambridge UK; Gland, Switzerland; and Washington, D.C., USA, 70 pp.
Watson, J.E., E.S. Darling, O. Venter, M. Maron, J. Walston, H.P. Possingham, N. Dudley, M. Hockings, M. Barnes & T.M. Brooks (2016). Bolder science needed now for protected areas. Conservation Biology 30(2): 243–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12645
Zakaria, M. & M.N. Rajpar (2010). Bird species composition and feeding guilds based on point count and mist netting methods at the Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research 21(2): 7–26.