Diversity and distribution of macro lichens from Kalpetta Municipality of Wayanad District, Kerala, India

Main Article Content

Greeshma Balu
A.R. Rasmi
Stephen Sequeira
Biju Haridas


Macro lichens of Kalpetta Municipality of Wayanad District of Kerala state were studied. The study revealed about 21 macro lichen species. All the species identified are either foliose or fruticose forms belonging to families Coccocarpiaceae, Caliciaceae, Physciaceae, Parmeliaceae, Collemataceae, Lobariaceae, and Ramalinaceae indicating the dominance of these groups in the study area.

Article Details

Short Communications


Awasthi, D.D. (1991). A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40: 1–337.

Awasthi, D.D. (2007). Compendium of the Macrolichens from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 580 pp.

Bhat, S., S.N. Dudani., M.D.S. Chandran & T.V. Ramachandra (2011). Lichens of Western Ghats. http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity/sahyadri_enews/newsletter/issue34/lichens _westernghats/index.htm

Biju, H., R.G. Bagool & S. Nayaka (2010). Additions to the lichen flora of Kerala State I: Parmelioid macro-lichens. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34(4): 890–897.

Biju, H., R. Bagool, S.Nayaka & T. Palode (2012). Additions to the Lichen Flora of Kerala State II: Graphidaceae. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36(4): 867–873.

Divakar, P.K. & D.K. Upreti (2005). Parmelioid Lichens in India (A Revisionary study). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

Easa, P.S. (2003). Biodiversity documentation of Kerala Part 3: Lichens. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala, 61 pp.

Fryday, A.M. (2000). The lichen vegetation associated with areas of late snow lie in the Scottish highlands. Lichenologist 33: 121–150.

John, E.A. (1992). Distribution patterns and inter thalline interactions of epiphytic foliose lichens. Canadian Journal of Botany 70: 818–823.

Kumar, M & S. Sequiera (2003). Notes on a collection of some lichens from Chembra and Thirunelly hills of Wayanad Districts, Kerala State, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 27(Suppl.): 1029–1039.

Kumar, M.S.M. (2000). Lichen (Macrolichen) Flora of Kerala Part of Western Ghats, KFRI Research Report 194, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala, 186 pp.

Larsen, R.S., J.N. B. Bell., P.W. James., P.J. Chimonides., F.J. Rumsey, A. Tremper & O.W. Purvis (2007). Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity. Environmental pollution 146(2): 332–340.

Mesta, A.R. & V.S. Kanivebagilu (2015). Distribution Pattern and Ecology of Usneoid lichens in Western Ghats, Southern India. Journal on New Biological Reports 4: 247–254.

Mishra, G.K. & D.K. Upreti (2015). Altitudinal distribution of cetrarioid lichens in Govind Wildlife Sanctuary, Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Geophytology 45(1): 9–19.

Nayaka, S., D.K. Upreti, S. Phatak & C. Samuel (2006). Preliminary observation on lichen flora of coconut and arecanut orchards of Goa, India. Phytotaxonomy 6: 23–25.

Nayaka, S. & D.K. Upreti (2011). Lichens diversity in Western Ghats: Need for quantitative assessment and conservation. Report of the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266143899

Nayaka, S. (2014). Methods and techniques in collection, preservation and identification of lichens, pp. 101–128. In: Rana, T.S., K.N. Nair & D.K. Upreti (eds.). Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics–Classical and Modern Methods. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi.

Negi, H.R. & D.K. Upreti 2000. Species diversity and relative abundance of lichens in Rumbak catchment of Hemis National Park in Ladhak. Current Science 78: 1105–1112.

Orange, A., P.W. James & F.J. White (2001). Microchemical methods for the identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society, Natural History Museum, London, UK.

Patwardhan, P.G. (1983). Rare and endemic lichens of Western Ghats, South Western India, pp. 318–322. In: Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao (eds.). An assessment of threatened plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah.

Singh, K.P. & G.P. Sinha (2010). Indian lichens: an annotated checklist. Botanical Survey of India. Shiva Offset Press, Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

Sinha, G.P., S. Nayaka & S. Joseph (2018). Additions to the checklist of Indian lichens after 2010. Cryptogam Biodiversity and Assessment Special Volume (2018): 197–206. https://doi.org/10.21756/cab.esp16.

Sequiera, S. (2003). Taxonomy and Ecology of lichens of Silent Valley National Park, Southern Western Ghats, India. PhD Thesis, FRI, Dehradun.

Sequiera, S. (2007). Lichens of high ranges and their utilization potential. Technical report, KSCSTE, Thiruvananthapuram, 78 pp.

Sreekumar, V.B., K.H. Hussain & C. Renuka (2017). Virtual herbarium of Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala, India. Current Science 112: 466–470.

Zachariah, S.A., S. Nayaka, S. Joseph, P. Gupta, S. Thomas & S.K. Varghese (2018). New and noteworthy records of lichens from Pathanamthitta district, Kerala. Studies in Fungi 3(1): 349–356. https://doi.org/10.5943/sif/3/1/35

Zachariah, S.A., S. Nayaka, P. Gupta & S.K. Varghese (2019). The lichen genus Pyxine (Caliciaceae) in Kerala state with P. dactyloschmidtii as new to India. Hattoria 10: 109–117.

Zachariah, S.A., S. Nayaka, S. Joseph, P. Gupta & S.K. Varghese (2020). Eleven new records of lichens to the state of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(10): 16402–16406. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5475.12.10.16402-16406

Wijayawardene, N.N., K.D. Hyde, L.K.T. Al-Ani, L. Tedersoo, D. Haelewaters, K.C. Rajeshkumar, R.L. Zhao, A. Aptroot, D. Leontyev, R.K. Saxena, Y.S. Tokarev, D.Q. Dai, P.M. Letcher, S.L. Stephenson, D. Ertz, H.T. Lumbsch, M. Kukwa, I.V. Issi, H. Madrid, A.J.L. Phillips, L. Selbmann, W.P. Pfliegler, E. Horváth, K. Bensch, P.M. Kirk, K. Kolaříková, H.A. Raja, R. Radek, V. Papp, V. Dima, J. Ma, E. Malosso, S. Takamatsu, G. Rambold, P.B. Gannibal, D. Triebel, A.K. Gautam, S. Avasthi, S. Suetrong, E. Timdal, S.C. Fryar, G. Delgado, M. Réblová, M. Doilom, S. Dolatabadi, J. Pawłowska, R. Humber, R. Kodsueb, I. Sánchez-Castro, B.T. Goto, D.K.A. Silva, F.A. de Souza, F.Oehl, G.A. da Silva, I.R. Silva, J. Błaszkowski, K. Jobim, L. Maia, F. Barbosa, P. Fiuza, P. Divakar, B. Shenoy, R.F. Castañeda-Ruiz, S. Somrithipol, A.A. Lateef, S.C. Karunarathna, S. Tibpromma, P.E. Mortimer, D.N. Wanasinghe, R. Phookamsak, J. Xu, Y. Wang, F. Tian, P. Alvarado, D.W. Li, I. Kušan, N. Matočec, A. Mešić, Z. Tkalčec, S. Maharachchikumbura, M. Papizadeh, G. Heredia, F. Wartchow, M. Bakhshi, E. Boehm, N. Youssef, V. Hustad, J. Lawrey, A. Santiago, J. Bezerra, C. Souza-Motta, A. Firmino, Q. Tian, J. Houbraken, S. Hongsanan, K. Tanaka, A. Dissanayake, J. Monteiro, H. Grossart, A. Suija, G. Weerakoon, J. Etayo, A. Tsurykau, V. Vázquez, P. Mungai, U. Damm, Q.R. Li, H. Zhang, S. Boonmee, Y.Z. Lu, A.G. Becerra, B. Kendrick, F.Q. Brearley, J. Motiejūnaitė, B. Sharma, R. Khare, S. Gaikwad, D. Wijesundara, L. Tang, M. He, A. Flakus, P. Rodriguez-Flakus, M. Zhurbenko, E. McKenzie, M. Stadler, D. Bhat, J. Liu, M. Raza, R. Jeewon, E. Nassonova, M. Prieto, R. Jayalal, M. Erdoğdu, A. Yurkov, M. Schnittler, O. Shchepin, Y. Novozhilov, A. Silva-Filho, E. Gentekaki, P. Liu, J. Cavender, Y. Kang, S. Mohammad, L. Zhang, R. Xu, Y. Li, M. Dayarathne, A. Ekanayaka, T. Wen, C. Deng, O. Pereira, S. Navathe, D. Hawksworth, X. Fan, L. Dissanayake, E. Kuhnert, H. Grossart & M. Thines (2020). Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere 11(1): 1060–1456. https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8