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Crop raiding and livestock predation are major conservation problems throughout most protected areas in Nepal, including the Khaptad National Park (KNP). However, no information exists on the extent of crop raiding, livestock predation, and animal attacks among villages surrounding KNP. We conducted a survey of 304 households in 30 villages in four districts (Bajhang, Bajura, Doti, and Achham) in the buffer zone of KNP between 24 May and 20 June 2019, using the snowball sampling technique. All households experienced numerous major incidents of crop raiding between April 2017 and May 2019. Major wildlife involved were Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Himalayan Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Rhesus Macaque Macaca mulatta, Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, and Porcupine Hystrix spp. Of the 304 households, all had their crops raided over the past two years, 55.5% (n = 169) faced livestock predation, and 2% (n = 6) attacks resulting in death or injury. Over 40% of households reported taking mitigation measures to minimize crop raiding. Common measures such as night guarding, noise making, use of scarecrows, watch dogs, and fencing were practiced. More than half of respondents had negative opinions towards wildlife but they still believed that wildlife should be conserved. There was no or negligible correlation between general opinion of respondents towards wildlife and wildlife conservation with their education, sex, or involvement in natural resources management group. We established baseline information on crop raiding and livestock predation in villages surrounding KNP. Gathered information will be transmitted to relevant authorities to design and implement measures to mitigate such conflicts.
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