Main Article Content
Butterfly species’ abundance and factors influencing butterfly detection in Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala was studied from April to June 2018. The survey was carried out on 15 tracks of 2-km lengths surveyed two times resulting in the sampling effort of 60km. A total of 141 species of butterflies belonging to two orders, six families and 103 genera were observed during the study, of which 15 species were recorded as endemic. The majority of butterfly species belonged to the families Nymphalidae and Lycanidae. The size of butterflies varies significantly among families with the largest butterflies recorded in Papilionidae and Nymphalidae and the smallest butterflies from Hesperidae and Lycanidae. The factors that determine butterfly detection during the count was determined using multiple regression. The number of detections had a linear relation with abundance, size, and activities of the butterflies. The model was highly significant and explained 86.9% of the variation in the detection of butterflies (F=407.8; df=3; p<0.000). Abundance had a primary influence on detection followed by the size and activities of the butterflies. Further studies on relative detectability of different species of butterflies in the diversity and abundance estimation would help in refining methods of assessment of butterflies.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27126.96.36.19953-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Aneesh, K.S, C.K. Adarsh & P.O. Nameer (2013). Butterflies of Kerala agricultural university (KAU) campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(9): 4422–4440. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2870.4422-40 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2870.4422-40
Bhakre, M. & H. Ogle (2018). A Guide to the Butterflies of Western Ghats (India) Includes Butterflies of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat States. 1st Edition. Oxford University Press, Mumbai, 496pp.
Gaonkar, H. (1996). Butterflies of the Western Ghats, India including Sri Lanka - A biodiversity assessment of a threatened mountain system. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Bangalore, 89pp.
George, V.A. (2012). Management plan-Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary. Government of Kerala, Forest and wildlife department, New Delhi, 176pp.
Gupta, I.J. & M. Majumdar (2012). Handbook on Diversity in some of the Indian Butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, viii+324pp.
Hammer, O., D.A.T. Harper & P.D. Ryan (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis, Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1): 9
Isaac, N.J., K.L. Cruickshanks, A.M. Weddle, J.M. Rowcliffe, T.M. Brereton, R.L.H. Dennis, D.M. Shuker & C.D. Thomas (2011). Distance sampling and challenge of monitoring butterfly populations. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2: 585–594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00109.x
Kehimkar, I. (2016). The Book of Indian Butterflies. 2nd Edition. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 509pp.
Kunte, K. (2006). Butterflies of Peninsular India. 2nd Edition. Indian Academy of Sciences. Universities Press, Bangalore, xviii+254pp.
Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. Fonseca & J. Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853–858. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501
Palot, M.J., V.C. Balakrishnan, B. Valappil & G.H. Nair (2015). Butterfly diversity of Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary. Forest Development Agency, Kerala Forest and Wildlife Department, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kannur.
Pellet, J., J.T. Bried, D. Parietti, A. Gander, P.O. Heer, D. Cherix & R. Arlettaz (2012). Monitoring butterfly abundance: Beyond pollard walks, PlosOne 7(7): 1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041396
Sreekumar, P.G. & M. Balakrishnan (2001). Habitat and altitude preferences of butterflies in Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. Tropical Ecology 42(2): 277–281.
Sudheendrakumar, V.V., C.F. Binoy, P.V. Suresh & G. Mathew (2000). Habitat association of butterflies in Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 97(2): 193–201.