Rediscovery of Ophiorrhiza incarnata C.E.C. Fisch. (Rubiaceae) from the Western Ghats of India after a lapse of 83 years

Main Article Content

Perumal Murugan
Vellingiri Ravichandran
Chidambaram Murugan


Ophiorrhiza incarnata C.E.C.Fisch. (Rubiaceae), a threatened plant species of southern Western Ghats is rediscovered from the adjacent area of the type locality after lapse of eight decades.  Its distribution and conservation status are discussed.

Article Details



Chen, T.& C.M. Taylor (2011). Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) pp. 258–282. In: Wu, Z.Y. & P.H. Raven (eds.). Flora of China - Vol. 19. Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Darwin, S.P. (1976). The Pacific species of Ophiorrhiza L. (Rubiaceae). Lyonia 1(2): 48–101.

Deb, D.B. & D.C. Mondal (1997). Taxonomic revision of the genus Ophiorrhiza L. (Rubiaceae) in Indian subcontinent. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 39: 1–148.

Duan L.-D., Y. Lin & L. Zhen (2019). Ophiorrhiza shiqianensis (Rubiaceae), a new species from Guizhou, China. Phytokeys 121: 43–51. https://doi/org/10.3897/phytokeys.121.30570

Fischer, C.E.C. (1938). New or little-known plants from southern India. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 3: 123–127.

Hareesh, V.S. & M. Sabu (2018). The genus Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India with a new species. Phytotaxa 383(3): 259–272.

Hareesh, V.S., V.B. Sreekumar, K.M.P. Kumar, T.K. Nirmesh & K.A. Sreejith (2015). Ophiorrhiza sahyadriensis (Rubiaceae), a new species from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Phytotaxa 202(3): 219–224.

IUCN (2020). The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2019-3. http://www. Accessed 19 March 2020.

Nayar, T.S., A.R. Beegam & M. Sibi (2014). Flowering Plants of The Western Ghats India, Dicots. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, St. Joseph’s Press, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 794–795pp.

POWO (2020). Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 19-03-2020.

Sasidharan, N. (2013). Flowering Plants of Kerala: CD-ROM ver 2.0. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi.