Main Article Content
The Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata, is an ‘Endangered’ mammal species native to Pakistan but facing a risk of extinction due to hunting pressure for its scales used in trade. The current study investigated habitat preference of this unique species in the Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad, from September 2011 to August 2012. Three habitat types, viz, human vicinity area, agricultural land, and wild/natural area, were searched for recording signs of Indian Pangolin. Data on habitat preference was collected from direct and indirect signs of the species by monitoring 85 line transects, each measuring 500m in length and 50m in width, in 17 different sampling sites. A total of 323 signs of Indian Pangolin were recorded including 299 burrows, 10 live sightings, and 14 scats of the species. The maximum number of signs were recorded in wild or unmodified natural area (55.1%), followed by those in vicinity to human use area (20.12%), while the least (24.76%) were found in agricultural area. Statistical comparison using one-way analysis of variance of pangolin field signs, among three different types of habitats studied, differed significantly (df= 48, F= 13.723, p <0.001). Similarly, LSD analysis further revealed that field signs of Indian pangolin recorded on natural or wild habitat significantly differed from those which were on agricultural land and human vicinity area (p <0.001). The study concludes that the Indian Pangolin prefers habitats in the wild or natural area over those close to human vicinity and agricultural lands.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27220.127.116.1153-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Anwar, M., & A. chapman (2000). Feeding habits and food of grey goral in the Margalla Hills National Park. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 16: 28–32.
Atkins, W.A. (2004). Pholidota pangolins (Manidae). In: Grzimek, B., D.G. Kleiman, V. Geist & M.C. McDade (Eds.). Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, vol. 16. Thomson-Gale, Detroit. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413614010081
Baillie, J., D. Challender, P. Kaspal, A. Khatiwada, R. Mohapatra & H. Nash (2014). Manis crassicaudata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T12761A45221874. Downloaded on 16 March 2020. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-2.RLTS.T12761A45221874.en DOI: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-2.RLTS.T12761A45221874.en
Bartness, T.J. & B.D. Goldman (1989). Mammalian pineal melatonin: a clock for all seasons. Experientia 45: 939–945. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01953051
Broad, S., R. Lusmoore & M. Jenkins (1988). Significant trade in wildlife: a review of selected species in CITES appendix II, Switzerland.
Challender, D.W.S., S.R. Harrop & D.G. Macmillan (2015). Understanding markets to conserve trade-threatened species in CITES. Biological Conservation 15: 249–259 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.04.015
d’Aulaire, E. & P.O. d’Aulaire (1983). Pangolins are all the rage. International Wildlife 13: 14–16.
Daan, S. & J. Aschoff (1982). Circadian Contributions to Survival. In: Aschoff, J., S. Daan & G.A. Groos (eds.). Vertebrate Circadian Systems. Proceedings in Life Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68651-1_34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68651-1
Godvik, I.M.R., L.E. Loe, J.O. Vik, V. Veiberg, R. Langvatn & A. Mysterud (2009). Temporal scales, trade‐offs, and functional responses in Red Deer habitat selection. Ecology 90: 699–710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/08-0576.1
Halle, M. (2000). Distributed morphology: Impoverishment and fission. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.202.07hal
Hansell, M.H. (2003). The ecological importance of animal nests and burrows. Functional Ecology 7: 5–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2389861
Hijazi, S (1984). A phytosociological study of Margallah Hills National Park, Quaid-I-Azam Univ. Islamabad.
Ingram, D.J., D.T. Cronin, D.W.S. Challender, D.M. Vandittie, M.K. Gonder (2019). Characterising trafficking and trade of pangolins in the Gulf of Guinea. Global Ecology and Conservation 17: e00576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00576 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00576
Jabeen, A., M.A. Khan, M. Ahmad, M. Zafar & F. Ahmad (2009). Indigenous uses of economically important flora of Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 763–784.
Jacobson, N. H. G., R. E. Newbery, M.J. De-Wet, P.C. Viljoen & E. Pietersen (1991). A contribution of the ecology of the Steppe Pangolin Manis temminckiiin the Transvaal. Z. Saugetierk 56: 94–100.
Karawita, H., P. Perera, N. Dayawansa & S. Dias (2020). Dietary composition and foraging habitats of the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in a tropical lowland forest-associated landscape in southwest Sri Lanka. Global Ecology and Conservation 21: e00880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00880 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00880
Lima, S.L. & P.A. Bednekoff (1999). Temporal variation in danger drives antipredator behavior: the predation risk allocation hypothesis. American Naturalist 153: 649–659. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/303202
Mahmood, T., N. Irshad & R. Hussain (2014). Habitat preference and population estimates of Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in district Chakwal of Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Russian Journal of Ecology 45(1): 70–75. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413614010081 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413614010081
Mahmood, T., R.K. Mohapatra, P. Perera, N. Irshad, F. Akrim, S. Andleeb, ... & S. Panda (2020). Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Geoffroy, 1803), pp. 71–88. In: Pangolins: Science, Society and Conservation. Academic Press, 630pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815507-3.00005-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815507-3.00005-8
Mahmood, T., D. Challender, A. Khatiwada, S. Andleeb, P. Perera, S. Trageser & R. Mohapatra (2019). Manis crassicaudata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T12761A123583998. Downloaded on 19 April 2021. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T12761A123583998.en DOI: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T12761A123583998.en
Pakistan, W (2009). Boundry delination of Margalla Hill National Park. In: Boundry delineation and Renotification of protected areas project.
Rasheed, F., S. Hafeez & I.Q. Bhabha (2005). Phyto-sociological study and determination of carryingcapacity of the reserve forest compartment -17 of Margallah Hills National Park. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research Science 42: 1–2.
Roberts, T.J. (1997). The Mammals of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New York, 525pp.
Shinwari, M. & M.A. Khan (1998). Ethonobatany of Margalla Hill National Park of Islamabad, Department of Biological Sciences, PASTIC National Center, Islamabad.
Waseem, M., B. Khan, T. Mahmood, H.S. Hussain, R. Aziz, F. Akrim, T. Ahmad, R. Nazir, M.W. Ali & M.N. Awan (2020). Occupancy, habitat suitability and habitat preference of endangered Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Potohar Plateau and Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Global Ecology and Conservation 23: e01135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01135
Wu, S.B., N.F. Liu, G.Z. Ma, Z.R. Xu & H. Chen (2003). Habitat selection by Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) in winter in Dawuling Natural Reserve. Mammalia 67: 493–501. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm-2003-0403