Main Article Content
The Greater Adjutant is an IUCN Red List ‘Endangered’ scavenging stork. This study reports the findings of post-mortem, histopathology, and a series of microbiological tests conducted on the Greater Adjutant that died in Deeporbeel Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam. A post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule forming parasitic (Balfouria monogama) infestations in the stomach and intestine. Generalised congestion and haemorrhages in multiple organs were also revealed by the histopathological findings. Bacteriological culture detected the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens was confirmed by cpa gene PCR). Virus detection tests like HA and HI test for NDV and rapid antigen detection test for Avian Influenza virus were found to be negative; however, PCR of tissue samples from two Greater Adjutants for Flavivirus was found to be positive. Greater Adjutants may carry the above bacteria as commensals in their GI tract and may possibly act as a reservoir of Flavivirus. The actual cause of deaths, however, were confirmed by the forensic report to be due to organophosphorus toxicity.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Benskin, C.M.W.H., K. Wilson, K. Jones & I.R. Hartely (2009). Bacterial pathogens in wild birds: a review of the frequency and effects of infection. Biological Reviews 84: 349–373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2008.00076.x
BirdLife International (2016). Leptoptilos dubius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T22697721A93633471. Downloaded on 05 February 2019. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22697721A93633471.en
Culling, C.F.A. (Eds.) (1974). Handbook of Histopathological and Histochemical Techniques (including museum techniques). 3rd Edition. Butterworth & Co Ltd. London. Great Britain, 726pp.
Davidson, I. (2015). A new look at avian flaviviruses. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 70(2): 3–8.
Farnleitner, A.H., G. Ryzinska-Paier, G.H. Reischer, M.M. Burtscher, S. Knetsch, A.K.T. Kirschner, T. Dirnböck, G. Kuschnig, R.L. Mach & R. Sommer (2010). Escherichia coli and enterococci are sensitive and reliable indicators for human, livestock and wildlife faecal pollution in alpine mountainous water resources. Journal of Applied Microbiology 109(5): 1599–1608. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04788.x
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp & T. Inskipp (Eds.) (2016). Helm Field Guides. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Christopher Helm, London, 528pp.
Harith, A.N. (2009). Pathological changes of acute toxicity induced by oral administration of malathion in pigeons. Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research 8(2): 65–77. https://doi.org/10.33762/bvetr.2009.56882
Islam, S., B.J. Das, S. Goswami, N. Baruah, S.R. Pegu (2009). Balfouria monogama Leiper, 1909 induced lesions in intestine of Leptoptilos dubius, an endangered stork of Indian subcontinent. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 23(2): 115–120.
Kiu, R. & L.J. Hall (2018). An update on the human and animal enteric pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Emerging Microbes & Infections 7: 141. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0144-8
Lopes, S.F., I.P. Farias, L.T.M. Figueiredo, R.P. Figueiredo, F.A. Morais, M.R.T. Nunes & M.L.G. Figueiredo (2015). Flavivirus Infection in wild birds from Brazilian Amazon. Entomology Ornithology and Herpetology 4: 156. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0983.1000156
Meiyu, F., H. Chen, C. Chen, X. Tian, L. Jiang, Y. Peng, W. Chen & H. Guo (1997). Detection of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with the universal primer set. Microbiology and Immunology 41(3): 209–213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.1997.tb01192.x
O’Brien, D.K. & S.B. Melville (2004). Effects of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (PLC) and perfringolysin O (PFO) on cytotoxicity to macrophages, on escape from the phagosomes of macrophages, and on persistence of C. perfringens in host tissues. Infection and Immunity 72(9): 5204–5215. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.9.5204-5215.2004
OIE Terrestrial Manual (2015a). Section 3.3. Aves. Chapter 3.3.4. Avian Influenza (Infection with Avian Influenza Virus), pp. 821–843. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris, France, 1833pp. https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/3.03.04_AI.pdf
OIE Terrestrial Manual (2015b). Section 3.3. Aves. Chapter 3.3.14. Newcastle Disease (Infection with Newcastle Disease Virus), pp. 964–983. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris, France. 1833pp. https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/3.03.14_NEWCASTLE_DIS.pdf
OIE Terrestrial Manual (2018a). Section 3.1. Multiple species. Chapter 3.1.10. Japanese Encephalitis, pp. 477–690. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris, France, 1833pp. https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/3.01.10_JEV.pdf
OIE Terrestrial Manual (2018b). Section 3.1. Multiple species. Chapter 3.1.24. West Nile Fever, pp 697–710. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris, France, 1833pp. https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/3.01.24_WEST_NILE.pdf
Ramos, C.P., J.A. Santana, F.M. Coura, R.G.C. Xavier, C.A.G. Leal, C.A.O. Junior, M.B. Heinemann, A.P. Lage, F.C.F. Lobato & R.O.S. Silva (2019). Identification and characterization of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Spp., Clostridium perfringens, and C. difficile isolates from reptiles in Brazil. BioMed Research International Article ID 9530732. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9530732
Singha, H., A.R. Rahmani, M.C. Coulter & S. Javed (2003). Surveys for Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius in the Brahmaputra valley, Assam, India during 1994–1996. Forktail 19: 146–148.
Snoeck, C.J., A.T. Adeyanju, A.A. Owoade, E. Couacy-Hymann, B.R. Alkali, U. Ottosson & C.P. Mullera (2013). Genetic diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(24): 7867–7874. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02716-13
Smith, H.A., T.C. Jones & R.D. Hunt (Eds.) (1972). Chapter 17, pp 966–967. Diseases due to extraneous poisons (Organic Phosphates). In: Veterinary Pathology. 4th Edition. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A., 1521pp.
Titball, R.W., C.E. Naylor & A.K. Basak (1999). The gene encoding the a-(cpa) is present in all strains of Clostridium perfringens, The Clostridium perfringens a-toxin. Anaerobe 5(2): 51–64. https://doi.org/10.1006/anae.1999.0191
Vandegrift, K.J., S.H. Sokolow, P. Daszak & A.M. Kilpatrick (2010). Ecology of avian influenza viruses in a changing world. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1195(5): 113–128. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05451.x
Wang, J., Z.B. Ma, Z.L. Zeng, X.W. Yang, Y. Huang & J.H. Liu (2017). The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes. Zoological Research 38(2): 55–80. https://doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.003