Plant and fungi diversity of Devi Pindiyan Valley in Trikuta Hills of northwestern Himalaya, India

Main Article Content

Sajan Thakur
Harish Chander Dutt
Bikarma Singh
Yash Pal Sharma
Nawang Tashi
Rajinder Singh Charak
Geeta Sharma
Om Prakash Vidyarathi
Tasir Iqbal
Bishander Singh
Kewal Kumar


The Devi Pindiyan Valley, an abode of Goddess Vaishno Devi, in Trikuta Hills (western Himalaya) is a unique hill-top land ecosystem with a diverse regional mixed subtropical and temperate flora. Because of its suitable geographic location, specific and unique habitat conditions, this mountainous belt of Shivalik Himalaya has a large number of endemic and threatened plant species.  This study presents information on the plant diversity of Devi Pindiyan Valley of Trikuta Hills. Several line-transect (100m N-S and 100 E-W) surveys were conducted in which nested quadrats of 10m × 10m were laid for trees, within which interspersed two 5m × 5m sub-quadrats for shrubs and five 1m × 1m sub-quadrants for herbs at different places for determination of floristic composition. In the diverse habitats of this valley, we recorded 213 vascular plant species belonging to 164 genera under 71 families. This study area also harbors rich diversity of fungi, where the most visible 7 species of macrofungi belongs to 7 genera and 4 families were documented.  Out of the documented species, 35 species have been categorized as threatened based on the latest IUCN Red list criteria, while 178 species are included in the catalogue of world life. Engelhardtia spicata Lechen ex Blume var. integra (Kurz) Manning ex Steenis has been categorized as Least Concerned (LC) by IUCN Red List site. The species diversity indicates the high conservation value of this area and documenting such an ecologically rich ecosystem becomes a prerequisite for developing and formulating conservation-cum-management strategies. Therefore, we recommend there is need for ecological research in terms of biodiversity conservation on Devi Pindiyan Valley and similar ecosystems. 

Article Details

Author Biography

Bikarma Singh, Plant Sciences (Biodiversity and Applied Botany Division), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir 180001, India.

Biodiversity and Applied Botany


Bentham, G. & J.D. Hooker (1876). Genera Plantarum. Published by L. Reeve & Co., London, 1040pp.

Bhatia, H., Y.P. Sharma, R.K. Manhas & K. Kumar (2013). Ethnobotanical plants used by the villagers of district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151: 1005–1018.

Bhatia, H., Y.P. Sharma, R.K. Manhas & K. Kumar (2014). Traditional phytoremedies for the treatment of menstrual disorders in district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 160: 202–210.

Bhellum, B.L. & R. Magotra (2012). A catalogue of flowering plants of Doda, Kishtwar and Ramban Districts (Kashmir Himalayas). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 286pp.

Dar, G.H., A.A. Khuroo, C.S. Reddy & A.H. Malik (2012). Impediment to taxonomy and its impact on biodiversity science: an Indian perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B. Biological Sciences 82: 235–240.

Dar, G.H., A.H. Malik & A.A. Khuroo (2014). A contribution to the flora of Rajouri and Poonch Districts in the PirPanjal Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir), India. Check List 10: 317–328.

Dutt, H.C., N. Bhagat & S. Pandita (2015). Oral traditional knowledge on medicinal plants in jeopardy among Gaddi shepherds in hills of Northwestern Himalaya, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 168: 337–348.

Gairola, S., J. Sharma & Y.S. Bedi (2014). A cross-cultural analysis of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (India) medicinal plant use. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155:925–986.

Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao (1977). A Handbook of Field and Herbarium Methods. Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, India, 157pp.

Kapur, S.K. (1982). Phyto-ecological studies in Trikuta Hills with special reference to the distribution pattern of economic plant products. PhD Thesis, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu (unpublished).

Kapur, S.K. & Y.K. Sarin (1990). Flora of Trikuta Hills. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 267pp.

Kirn, H.S. (2000). Pteridophytic flora of Poonch District of Jammu and Kashmir State, north-west Himalayas. Indian Fern Journal 17: 92–105.

Kour, S., R. Yangdol, S. Kumar & Y.P. Sharma (2017). Reports on family Psathyrellaceae from Jammu and Kashmir, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 40:303–311.

Kumar, K., Y.P. Sharma, R.K. Manhas & H. Bhatia (2015). Ethnobotanical plants of Shankaracharya Hill, Srinagar, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 170: 255–274.

Kumar, M., Y. Paul & V.K. Anand (2009). An Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the locals in Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1240–56.

Kumar, S. & I.A. Hamal (2009). Wild edibles of Kishtwar high altitude national park in Northwest Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir (India). Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 195–202.

Kumar, S. & Y.P. Sharma (2011). Diversity of wild mushroom from Jammu and Kashmir, India, pp. 568–579. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mushroom biology and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP).

Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Shastry (1987-1990). Red Data Book of Indian Plants, 3 Vols. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India.

Pandita, S. & H.C. Dutt (2017). Herbaceous species in structuring the ecotone between forest-grassland in lesser stratum of North-West (NW) Himalaya. NeBIO 8: 287–293.

Rao, C.K., B.L. Geetha & G. Suresh (2003). Red list of Threatened Vascular Plant Species in India. Published by ENVIS, Botanical Survey of India, MoEF, Howrah, India, 144pp.

Rao, R.R. & B.D. Sharma (1990). A Manual for Herbarium Collections. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 20pp.

Reddy, C.S., G. Bagyanarayana, K.N. Reddy & V.S. Reddy (2008). Invasive Alien Flora of India. Published by National Biological Information Infrastructure, US Geological Survey, USA, 130pp.

Samant, S.S., U. Dhar & L.M.S. Palni (1998). Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalaya: Diversity Distribution Potential Values. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development: Almora, India, 161pp.

Sharma, B.M. & P. Kachroo (1983). Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighbourhood (Vol. I-II). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 407pp.

Singh, B. (2015). Himalayan Orchids- Distribution and Taxonomy. Write and Print Publications, New Delhi, India, 224pp.

Singh, B. (2019a). Plants for Human Survival and Medicine. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, India, 592pp.

Singh, B. (2019b). Plants of Commercial Values. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, India, 450pp.

Singh, B., B. Singh, S.K. Borthakur & S.J. Phukan (2018). Contribution to biodiversity hotspot: assessment of forest types, floristic composition and economic wealth of Nokrek Biosphere Reserve in northeast India. Indian Forester 144: 734–741.

Singh B., S. Singh, B. Singh, S. Kitchlu & B. Babu (2019).Assessing ethnic traditional knowledge, biology and chemistry of Lepidium didymum L., lesser-known wild plants of western Himalaya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B. Biological Sciences 89(3): 1087–1094.

Singh B., P. Sultan, Q.P. Hassan, S. Gairola & Y.S. Bedi (2016) Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge, and diversity of wild edible plants and fungi: a case study in the Bandipora district of Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants 22(3): 247–278.

Singh, D.K., B.P. Uniyal & R. Mathu (1999). Jammu and Kashmir, pp. 905–974. In: Mudgal, V. & P.K. Hajra (eds.). Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India, Vol. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Dehradun, India.

Swami, A. & B.K. Gupta (1998). Flora of Udhampur. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 455pp.