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Calamus pseudoerectus (Arecaceae or Palmae), a new species of rattan from the hilly slopes of Mukti and Mahananda rivers at Darjeeling District of West Bengal in the eastern Indian Himalaya, is described and illustrated. This species closely resembles two Indo-Myanmar species, C. erectus Roxb. and C. arborescence Griff. It, however, is distinguished by its short and extremely slender stem, spine ornamentation, pendulous, long-branched inflorescence, and minute fruits with fimbriate scales. A comparative study among C. pseudoerectus sp. nov., C. erectus Roxb., and C. arborescence Griff. is provided. Conservation status of this species is proposed as Endangered (EN) as per IUCN.
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