Main Article Content
This study aimed to explore peopleâ€™s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena conservation in lowland Nepal.Â Structured questionnaire sheets were used to collect information on major threats, human casualties, and peopleâ€™s perception towards Hyaenas and other carnivores.Â Peopleâ€™s perceptions toward Hyaenas and conservation were overall positive.Â During the study, 400 people were interviewed and questionnaire sheets were filled.Â It was discovered that 63% had a positive attitude toward the Hyaenas.Â On the other hand, 37% of the people had a negative attitude regarding the speciesâ€™ conservation.Â It was found that local people had understood various aspects of Hyaena ecology.Â Sixty-five percent of the people responded that the Hyaena entered human populated areas due to an absence of food in the natural forests and habitat degradation.Â A total of 19% of the respondents reported killing carnivores including the Hyaena due to human-carnivore conflicts.ÂÂ
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27184.108.40.20653-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Akay, A.E., S. Inac & I.C. Yildirim (2011). Monitoring the local distribution of Striped Hyenas (Hyaena hyaena L.) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey (Hatay) by using GIS and remote sensing technologies. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 181: 145â€“455; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1840-6
Alam, M.S., J.A. Khan & B.J. Pathak (2015). Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) status and factors affecting its distribution in the Gir National Park and Sanctuary, India. Folia Zoological 64: 32â€“39.
Athreya, V., M. Odden, J.D.C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy & U. Karanth (2013). Big cats in our backyards: Persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS ONE 8(3): e57872; http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057872
Chalise, M.K. (2001). Nepalâ€™s Wildlife (Part - 2). Natural History Society of Nepal, Publication, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Chutipong, W., J.L. Antony, S. Robert, S. Tommaso & A.G. George (2014). Sampling mammalian carnivores in western Thailand: Issues of rarity and detectability. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 521â€“535.
Dickman, A.J. (2010). Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving humanâ€“wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation 13: 458â€“466; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00368.x
Harihar, A., M. Ghosh, M. Fernandes, B. Pandav & S.P Goyal (2010). Use of photographic capture-recapture sampling to estimate density of Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena): implications for conservation. Mammalia 74(1): 83â€“87;Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/mamm.2009.072
Hofer, H. & G. Mills (1998). Population size, threats and conservation status of hyaenas, pp. 64â€“79. In: Mills, G. & H. Hofer (Comps.) Hyenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Hyena Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hofer, H. (1998). Species accounts: striped hyena Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus, 1758), pp. 21â€“26. In: Mills, G. & H. Hofer (Comp.) Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/ SSC Hyaena Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.
Holekamp, K. E., L. Smale, R. Berg & S.M. Cooper (1997). Hunting rates and hunting success in the spotted hyaena. Journal of Zoology 242(1): 1â€“15; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1997.tb02925.x
Jnawali, S.R., H.S. Baral, S. Lee, K.P. Acharya, G.P. Upadhyay, M. Pandey, R. Shrestha, D. Joshi, B.R. Lamichhane, J. Griffiths, A. Khatiwada & R. Amin (compilers) (2011). The Status of Nepal Mammals: The National Red List Series. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Kanagaraj, R., T. Wiegand, S.K. Schadt, M. Anwar & S.P. Goyal (2011). Assessing habitat suitability for tiger in the fragmented Terai Arc Landscape of India and Nepal. Ecography 34: 970â€“981; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06482.x
Karanth, K.U., J.D. Nichols, N.S. Kumar & J.E. Hines (2006). Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture - recapture sampling. Ecology 87(11): 2925â€“2937; http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[2925:ATPDUP]2.0.CO;2
Kasparek, M., A. Kasparek, B. Gozcelioglu, E. Ã‡olak & N. Yigit (2004). On the status and distribution of the Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) in Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 33: 93â€“108.
Khorozyan, I., A. Malkhasyan & M. Murtskhvaladze (2011). The Striped Hyaena Hyaena hyaena (Hyaenidae, Carnivora) rediscovered in Armenia. Folia Zoologica 60: 253â€“261.
Li, J., H. Yin, D. Wang, Z. Jiagong & Z. Lu (2013). Human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau. Biological Conservation 166: 118â€“123; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.06.024
Maharjan, S. (2015). Human wildlife conflict: crop raiding by wild animals in proposed buffer zone of Shivapuri National Park Nepal. MSc thesis. Central Department of Environment Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Majupuriya, T. & R.K. Majupuriya (2006). Wildlife and protected areas of Nepal. Craftsman Press Ltd, Bangkok, Thailand.
May, R., J.V. Dijk, P. Wabakken, J.E. Swenson, J.D.C. Linnell, B. Zimmermann, J. Odden, H.C. Pedersen, R. Andersen & A. Landa (2008). Habitat differentiation within the large-carnivore community of Norwayâ€™s multiple-use landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 1382â€“1391.
McGuinness, S. & D. Taylor (2014). Farmersâ€™ perceptions and actions to decrease crop raiding by forest-dwelling primates around a rwandan forest fragment. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 19(2): 179â€“190; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2014.853330
MFSC (2006). Terai Arc Landscape - Nepal Annual Progress Report, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Nepal.
Mills, M.G.L. & H. Hofer (1998). Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, vi+154pp.
Michalski, F., R.L.P. Boulhosa, A. Faria & C.A. Peres (2006). Humanâ€“wildlife conflicts in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape: determinants of large felid depredation on livestock. Animal Conservation 9(2): 179â€“188; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00025.x
Mondal, P.C.K., K. Sankar & Q. Qureshi (2012). Food Habits of Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) and Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Western India World. Journal of Zoology 7: 106â€“112; http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjz.2012.7.2.63139
Qarqaz, M.A., M.A.A. Baker & Z.S. Amr (2004). Status and ecology of the Striped Hyaena, Hyaena hyaena, in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 33: 87â€“92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2004.10638067
Reiger, I. (1981). Hyaena hyaena. Mammalian Species 150: 1â€“5.
Shrestha, T.K. (2003). Wildlife of Nepal. B. Shrestha, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Singh, P., A.M. Gopalaswamy & K.U. Karanth (2010). Factors influencing densities of Striped Hyaenas (Hyaena hyaena) in arid regions of India. Journal of Mammalogy 91(5): 1152â€“1159;Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-159.1
Treves, A. & K.U. Karanth (2003). Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1491â€“1499; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00059.x
Wagner, A.P. (2006). Behavioral ecology of the Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena). PhD Thesis, Bozeman, Montana State University.
Woodroffe, R. & L.G. Frank (2005). Lethal control of African Lions (Panthera leo): local and regional population impacts. Animal Conservation 8(1): 91â€“98;
Woodroffe, R. & J.R. Ginsburg (1998). Edge effects and the extension of populations inside protected areas. Science 280: 2126â€“2128.
Woodroffe, R. (2000). Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Animal Conservation 3(2): 165â€“173; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00241.x