On the reproductive ecology of Suaeda maritima, S. monoica and S. nudiflora (Chenopodiaceae).

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A.J. Solomon Raju
Rajendra Kumar


Floral biology, sexual system, breeding system, pollinators, fruiting and seed dispersal aspects of three Suaeda species, S. maritima, S. monoica and S. nudiflora (Chenopodiaceae) were studied.  The flowers of all the three species are hermaphroditic, dichogamous, strongly protogynous with a pistillage phase during the mature bud stage and staminate phase following anthesis, self-compatible exhibiting mixed breeding systems with special adaptation for cross-pollination; but both self- and cross-pollination are vector-dependent.  In all, the flowers display a mix of anemophilous and entomophilous traits.  Anemophily is effective in high salt marshes while water currents bring about pollination in low salt marshes; insects pollinate the flowers while collecting the forage from pistillate and staminate phase flowers. In these species, the whole plant breaks off and rolls on the floor while shedding its diaspores.  Fruits with seeds intact and/or seeds shed from fruits float on water due to their ability for buoyancy.  The fruits and seeds thus disperse, settle in the entire extent of salt marshes or coastal areas and germinate in mid-summer season when salinity is very high in high and low salt marshes. 


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Author Biographies

A.J. Solomon Raju, Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India

Dr. Aluri Jacob Solomon Raju is a Professor of Environmental Sciences in Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. He was the Head of the Department during 2009-2012. He was the Visiting Professor of University of Colima, Mexico. He was a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Akron, USA for a period of two years. He has conducted extensive field work in Olympic Mountains, Colorado Rocky Mountains, Siskiyu Mountains, Yosemite National Park, Yellostone National Park and Grand Teton Mountains in connection with reproductive biology of an arctic-alpine genus Pedicularis and its conservation and management aspects. Further, he has also conducted field research in Mexico. He has published more than 300 research papers, participated and presented scores of research papers at more than 50 national and more than 30 International conferences held in India and abroad. He visited USA, Canada, UK, Brazil, Paraguay, Italy, Mexico, France, Germany, China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, Ethiopia and Tanzania. In recognition of his superior record of scholarship, he was awarded Distinguished Achievement Award by the University of Akron, USA. He is also the recipient of Best Research Award and Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Best Academician Award of Andhra University, Loyola Environmental Award from Loyola College, Chennai and Andhra Pradesh Scientist Award from Andhra Pradesh Council of Science & Technology, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. He successfully completed a number of major research projects on the Eastern Ghats Forests funded by ICAR, UGC, DST, CSIR, DBT and MoEF. He was the Expert member of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India in sanctioning the research projects. He has also worked on biodiesel plants such as Pongamia and Jatropha and work on these plants laid foundation for others to initiate work in commercial lines. He has also published ten books on various subjects published by national and international publishers. Twenty Ph.Ds and 10 M.Phils were awarded under his guidance. Further, he is currently serving as a resource person for All India Radio, TV Channels, Consultant for issues relating to conservation biology and environment. Further, he is currently operating All India Coordinated Research Project on the endangered species of Eastern Ghats funded by MoEF, on reproductive ecology of Coringa Mangrove Forest funded by MoEF and on reproductive ecology of rare plants of Eastern Ghats funded by CSIR, New Delhi. He is an expert-cum-reviewer for scores of scientific journals published by Elsevier, Springer publishers, Indian Publishers, US Publishers and African Publishers. He is the Chief Editor of Advances in Pollen-Spore Research and Guest Editor of Journal of Palynology.


Rajendra Kumar, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Indira Paryavaran Bhavan, Jorbagh Road, New Delhi 110003, India

Mr. Rajendra Kumar is currently working as Research Officer in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, New Delhi.  He has published six research papers.


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