Vascular plant diversity in the sacred grove of Modapalli in Viskhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh, India

Main Article Content

M. Tarakeswara Naidu
O. Aniel Kumar
M. Venkaiah


Sacred groves are tracts of virgin forest with rich biodiversity, as they have been protected for centuries by the local people for their cultural and religious beliefs and taboos.  Sacred groves are representatives of climax vegetation and exhibit diversity of species such as trees, climbers and other shade loving herbs.  In the present investigation, an attempt was made to study the diversity of a sacred grove of Modapalli, Visakhapatnam District, which comes under the Eastern Ghats of India.  A total of 207 species, 181 genera and 78 families comprising pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms were reported in the sacred grove.  In this study, only one endemic species, i.e., Ophiorrhiza chandrasekharanii and a few threatened species were recorded. 


Article Details

Short Communications


Anthwal, A., R.C. Sharma & A. Sharma (2006). Sacred groves: traditional way of conserving plant diversity in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal. Journal of American Science 2(2): 35–38.

Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). Revised survey of forest types of India. Government of India Press, Delhi, India, 117pp.

Chandrashekara, U.M. & S. Sankar (1998). Ecology and management of sacred grove in Kerala, India. Forest Ecology and Management 112: 165–177;

Gadgil, M. & V.D. Vartak (1975). Sacred groves of India: a plea for continued conservation. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 72: 314–320.

Gamble, J.S. & C.E.C. Fischer (1915–1936). Flora of the Presidency of Madras 3 Volumes. London, Rep. ed. 1957. Calcutta.

Ganesan, S., M. Ponnuchamy, L. Kesavan & A. Selvaraj (2009). Floristic composition and practices on the selected sacred groves of Palapatty Village (Reserved forest), Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8(2): 154–162.

Hooker, J.D. (1872–1897). The flora of British India, 7 Vol. L. Reeve & Co., London, 425–842pp.

IUCN (2014). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. . Downloaded on 17 June 2014.

Jadhav, S.N. & K.N. Reddy (2006). Threatened medicinal plants of Andhra Pradesh. ENVIS-SDNP special issue, 18–28pp.

Jain, S.K & R.R. Rao (1977). A Handbook of Field and Herbarium Methods. Today and Tomorrow printers, BSI, Calcutta, 157pp.

Jamir, S.A. & H.N. Pandey (2003). Vascular plant diversity in the sacred groves of Jaintia hills in northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1497–1510.

Khullar, P. (1992). Conservation of biodiversity in natural forest through preservation plots-A historical perspective. Indian forester 118(5): 337.

Lakshminarayana, K. & M. Venkaiah (1998). Biodiversity in the sacred groves of the north coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. National symposium on conservation of Eastern Ghats, 52–58pp.

Pullaiah, T & S. Kuruppusamy (2008). Flora of Andhra Pradesh - Vol. 5. Scientific Publishers, New Delhi, 83pp.

Rao, B.R.P., M.V.S. Babu, M.S. Reddy, V.S. Rao, S. Sunitha & K.N. Ganesaiah (2011). Sacred groves in sothern Eastern Ghats, India: Are they better managed than forest reserves? Tropical Ecology 52(1): 79–90.

Rao, J.P., M.T. Naidu, P.P. Murty & M. Venkaiah (2010). Diversity of vascular plants in the sacred grove of Uppa from Eastern Ghats, Visakhapatnam District in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 89(3&4): 406–411.

Rao, K.C., B.L. Geetha & S. Geetha (2003). Red List of Threatened Vascular Plant Species in India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, 43pp.

Rao, G.V.S & G.R. Kumari (2002–2008). Flora of Visakhapatnam District - 2 Volumes. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, 612pp.

Rao, P. (1996). Sacred groves and conservation. WWF India (Quart.) 7: 4–7.

Rawat, M., H.B. Vasista, R.K. Manhas & M. Negi (2011). Sacred forest of Kunjapuri Siddhapeet, Uttarakhand, India. Tropical Ecology 52(2): 219–211.

Reddy, K.N. & C.S. Reddy (2008). First red list of medicinal plants of Andhra Pradesh, India-conservation assessment and management planning. Ethnobotanical leaflets 12: 103–107.

Sambandan, K. & N. Dhatchanamoorthy (2012). Studies on the phytodiversity of a sacred grove and its traditional uses in Karaikal District, U.T. Puducherry. Journal of Phytology 4(2): 16–21.

Sujana, K.A. & C. Sivaperuman (2008). Status and Conservation of threatened flora in selected sacred groves of Coastal Kerala. Eco News 14(2): 6–10.

Sunitha, S. & B.R.P. Rao (1999). Sacred groves in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, pp. 367–373. In: Sivadasan, M. & P. Mathew (eds.). Biodiversity, Taxonomy and Conservation of Flowering Plants. Mentor Publishers, Calicut.

Venkaiah, M. (2004). Studies on Vegetation and Flora of Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh. Andhra University Press, Visakhapatnam, 214pp.