Sexual dimorphism in the Kudremukh Bush Frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae: Raorchestes tuberohumerus) of the Western Ghats, India, with a note on its distribution and conservation status

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Anand D. Padhye
Anushree Jadhav
Shauri Sulakhe
Neelesh Dahanukar


Raorchestes tuberohumerus (Kuramoto & Joshy, 2003) was described based on three male specimens and was diagnosed mainly based on the presence of tubercle on the humerus.  Here we describe the genetically confirmed female of the species and show that tubercle on the humeral bone is a sexually dimorphic character present only in males.  Further, based on current collection and literature review we studied the distribution of the species using niche based modelling. Using the distributional range and our observations on the threats to the habitat we propose that Raorchestes tuberohumerus, currently assessed as Data Deficient, can fall under the ‘Vulnerable’ category of IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 


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Author Biographies

Anand D. Padhye, Department of Zoology, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune, Maharashtra 411004, India

Anand D. Padhye is an Associate Professor in Zoology, Abasaheb Garware College, Pune. He works on systematics, ecology, diversity, distribution and evolution of amphibians.  


Anushree Jadhav, Department of Zoology, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune, Maharashtra 411004, India; Present address: Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra 411007, India

Anushree Jadhav has completed her Masters in Biodiversity at Abasaheb Garware College, Department of Biodiversity. She is currently pursuing her M.Phil from Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University.  


Shauri Sulakhe, Insearch Outdoors, C-26/9, Ketan Heights, Rahul Nagar Lane, Near Karve Statue, Kothrud, Pune. Maharashtra 411038, India

Shauri Sulakhe is a Founder-Director of Insearch Outdoors, an environment tourism organization in Pune. He is also a freelance field worker interested in wildlife photography and natural history.  


Neelesh Dahanukar, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), G1 Block, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune, Maharashtra 411008, India; and Systematics, Ecology and Conservation Laboratory, Zoo Outreach Organization (ZOO), 96 Kumudham Nagar, Vilankurichi Road, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641035, India

Neelesh Dahanukar works in ecology and evolution with an emphasis on mathematical and statistical analysis. He is also interested in taxonomy, distribution patterns and molecular phylogeny.



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