New records of Aplousobranch ascidians to Indian waters from Andaman Islands

Main Article Content

Jhimli Mondal
C. Raghunathan
K. Venkataraman


Aplousobranchia represents the largest order under the class Ascidiacea.  Two reef associated aplousobranch ascidians, Rhopalaea macrothorax Tokioka, 1953 under the family Diazonidae and Clavelina robusta Kott, 1990 under the family Clavelinidae, found from the Andaman group of islands are reported as new records to the Indian waters.  The present paper describes the taxonomic characters and distribution of these two newly recorded species.

Article Details



Ananthan, G. (2014). Diversity and Ecology of Sedentary Ascidians of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve. First Year Progress Report, 103pp.

Ali, A.J., M. Tamilselvi & V. Sivakumar (2014). Non-indigenous ascidians in V.O. Chidambaram Port, Thoothikudi, India. ESSO-NIOT, Chennai, 31pp.

Corbo, J.C., A.D. Gregorio & M. Levine (2001). The Ascidian as a Model Organism in Developmental and evolutionary Biology. Cell 106: 535–538.

Kott, P. (1969). Antarctic Ascidiacea. American Geophysical Union of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 239pp.

Kott, P. (1990). The Australian Ascidiacea. Part 2. Aplousobranchia. Memoirs of Queensland Museum 29(1): 1–298.

Kott, P. (2006). Observations on non-didemnid ascidians from Australian waters (1). Journal of Natural History 40(3): 169–234;

Lambert, G. (2002). Nonindigenous Ascidians in Tropical Waters. Pacific Science 56(3): 291–298.

Lengyel, N.L., J.S. Collie & P.C. Valentine (2009). The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges bank - ecological effects and genetic identification. Aquatic Invasion 4(1): 143–152.

Locke, A. (2009). A screening procedure for potential tunicate invaders of Atlantic Canada. Aquatic Invasion 4(1): 71–79.

Meenakshi, V.K., T.K.. Reganathan, S. Sentharamarai, & J. Jeyalakshmi (2003). Marine Biodiversity- Taxonomy of Indian Ascidians. Technical Report, 38pp.

Minchin, D., M.H. Davis & M.E. Davis (2006). Spread of the Asian tunicate Styela clava Herdman, 1882 to the east and south-west coasts of Ireland. Aquatic invasion 1(2): 91–96.

Monniot, F. & C. Monniot (2001). Ascidians from the tropical western Pacific. Zoosystema 23: 201–383.

Monniot, F. & C. Monniot (2008). Compléments sur la diversité des ascidies (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) de l’ouest Pacifique tropical. Zoosystema 30(4): 799–872.

Moreno, T.R. & R.M. Rocha (2008). Phylogeny of the Aplousobranchia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea). Revista Braseleria de Zoologia 25(2): 269–298.

Ruppert, E.E., R. Fox & R.D. Barnes (2004). Invertebrate Zoology. Thomson-Brooks/Cole, India, 7e, 963pp.

Shenkar, N. (2013). A new species of the genus Rhopalaea (Class: Ascidiacea) from the Red Sea. Zootaxa 3599(1): 051–058.

Tokioka, T. (1953). Ascidia of Sagami Bay, pp 1–313. In: Hattori H. (ed.). Iwanami Shoten. Tokyo, 315pp.

Venkataraman, K., C. Raghunathan, R. Raghuraman & C.R. Sreeraj (2012). Marine Biodiversity in India. Published by Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 178pp.

Venkataraman, K., C. Satyanarayan, J.R.B. Alfred & J. Wolstenholme (2003). Handbook on Hard Coral of India. Published by Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 266pp.

Wada, H. (1998). Evolutionary history of free-swimming and Sessile lifestyles in Urochordate as deduced from 18S r DNA molecular phylogeny. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15(9): 1189–1194.

Most read articles by the same author(s)