Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 March 2021 | 13(3): 17950–17962

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6596.13.3.17950-17962

#6596 | Received 21 August 2020 | Final received 03 January 2021 | Finally accepted 24 February 2021

 

 

Does the size of the butterfly enhance detection? Factors influencing butterfly detection in species inventory surveys

 

Anju Velayudhan 1 , Ashokkumar Mohanarangan 2, George Chandy 3 & S. Biju 4

 

1,2,3 Center for Wildlife Studies, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala 673576, India.

4 Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala 680651, India.

1 anjuvanju95@gmail.com, 2 vimalashok7@gmail.com (corresponding author), 3 chandy@kvasu.ac.in, 4 bijus@kvasu.ac.in

 

 

Editor: B.A. Daniel, Zoo Outreach Organisation, Coimbatore, India.         Date of publication: 26 March 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Velayudhan, A., A. Mohanarangan, G. Chandy & S. Biju (2021). Does the size of the butterfly enhance detection? Factors influencing butterfly detection in species inventory surveys. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(3): 17950–17962. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6596.13.3.17950-17962

 

Copyright: © Velayudhan et al. 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Anju Velayudhan (AV) has completed Post-Graduation in Wildlife Studies from KVASU-Centre for Wildlife Studies, Pookode, Wayanad. She is passionate about butterflies and she has carried out studies on butterfly species inventory surveys and the life cycle of butterflies. Presently she has been preparing for higher studies. Ashokkumar Mohanarangan (MA) has completed his Masters and Doctoral degree in Wildlife biology, from AVC College, Tamil Nadu. He is passionate about wild animal population ecology and conservation. He is working as Teaching Assistant at KVASU-CWS.  George Chandy (GC) has completed masters and PhD, in Veterinary Sciences.  He is the Course Director of KVASU-Centre for Wildlife Studies and he is passionate about Wildlife Conservation and Tribal Welfare.  Biju S. (BS) has completed masters and PhD, in Veterinary Sciences. He is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Livestock Production and Management. 

 

Author contribution: MA developed the concept, formulated hypothesis and did data analysis. AV did the field data collection, conceived the idea and carried out the preliminary analysis. GC and BS supervised the work and preparation of the final manuscript. 

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to the chief wildlife warden for granting permission to conduct the research study in the Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary (WL10-13885/2017 dated 23.03.2018).  We thank the wildlife warden and other field staff for their support at the time of the survey.

 

 

Abstract: Butterfly species’ abundance and factors influencing butterfly detection in Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala was studied from April to June 2018.  The survey was carried out on 15 tracks of 2-km lengths surveyed two times resulting in the sampling effort of 60km.  A total of 141 species of butterflies belonging to two orders, six families and 103 genera were observed during the study, of which 15 species were recorded as endemic.  The majority of butterfly species belonged to the families Nymphalidae and Lycanidae.  The size of butterflies varies significantly among families with the largest butterflies recorded in Papilionidae and Nymphalidae and the smallest butterflies from Hesperidae and Lycanidae.  The factors that determine butterfly detection during the count was determined using multiple regression.  The number of detections had a linear relation with abundance, size, and activities of the butterflies.  The model was highly significant and explained 86.9% of the variation in the detection of butterflies (F=407.8; df=3; p<0.000).  Abundance had a primary influence on detection followed by the size and activities of the butterflies.  Further studies on relative detectability of different species of butterflies in the diversity and abundance estimation would help in refining methods of assessment of butterflies.

 

Keywords: Abundance, Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, Hesperidae, Lepidoptera, Lycanidae, Nymphalidae.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Butterflies are universally popular among all fauna.  They are very beautiful and come in various sizes, shapes, and colours.  Different patterns on their body enhance their aesthetic value (Gupta & Majumdar 2012).  The Western Ghats can be classified into three biogeographical parts based on the status and distribution of butterflies.  They are the southern Western Ghats, central Western Ghats and the northern Western Ghats (Gaonkar 1996).  Because of high levels of species endemism, the Western Ghats is listed under 34 global biodiversity hotspots.  The region is prominent among all other biodiversity hotspots (Myers et al. 2000).  The butterfly fauna of the Western Ghats consists of 346 species of butterflies under six families (Bhakre & Ogle 2018).

 Most of the inventory surveys were carried out by sampling through forest paths and trails without any information on the sample area (Sudheendrakumar et al. 2000; Sreekumar & Balakrishnan 2001; Aneesh et al. 2013), hence it was not possible to estimate population density.  The systematic surveys using fixed width transect or using pollard walk (Isaac et al. 2011) helps to estimate the population density of butterflies with the same sampling effort by recording additional information on length and width of the area sampled.  It is essential to determine the different factors that determine the detection probability.  Species-wise differences in the detection probability of butterflies were reported in the studies carried out in the United Kingdom (Isaac et al. 2011). 

The family Nymphalidae is the most dominant family with a high number of species.  A detailed diversity study of butterflies in Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) has not been done yet.  Previous studies reported 24 species of butterflies in the study area (George 2012).  We have investigated butterfly species size and abundance influence on the detection of butterflies in inventory surveys at CWS.

 

 

METHODS

 

Study area

The study was conducted in Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, which spreads geographically within 76.417N and 10.402E and 76.560N and 10.483E in Thrissur District of Kerala State (George 2012).  The sanctuary was established in the year 1984.  The sanctuary consists of parts of Kodassery Reserve with an extent of 85.07km2.  It is bounded by Nelliampathy Reserve Forest on the east, Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary on the north-west, and Sholayar Reserve Forest on the south (Fig. 1).  The mean annual rainfall is 3,130mm.  The sanctuary has a tropical humid climate, with three distinct seasons, dry season (December–March) followed by the south-west monsoon (April–July), and north-east monsoon (August–November).  Temperature varies from 38.5°C to 15.6°C during different seasons.  The minimum temperature falls below 15.6°C during December.  The area is also vulnerable to forest fires during the dry season.  The sanctuary has more than 250 streams and six man-made waterholes.  Diverse vegetation and favourable climatic conditions in the sanctuary could support many species of butterflies.

 

Butterfly abundance estimation

Butterfly species abundance was estimated using fixed-width transect method in CWS from April 2018 to August 2018.  Totally, 15 strip transects of 2km were selected along paths with 2-m width on either side of the transect and sampled twice that resulted in the sampling effort of 60km.  The surveys were conducted between 09.30h and 13.30h when the butterflies were most active.  The butterflies observed in the field were photographed for further clarification and identification.  Butterflies were identified using field guides (Kunte 2006; Palot 2015; Kehimkar 2016; Bhakre & Ogale 2018) and specialists were consulted in case of uncertainty in the identification of species.  The butterflies were photographed using a Nikon 3100 DSLR camera with 18–50mm and 70–300 mm lens.  The butterfly survey routes were marked with GPS (Fig.1).

Statistical analysis was performed by using Windows-based statistical package Microsoft Excel, PAST (Hammer et al. 2001) and SPSS.  The diversity indices such as Simpson and Shannon-Wiener index of butterfly species from each habitat were analysed with the help of software PAST.  Butterfly size difference among different families was tested using one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA).  The factors that determine the detection of butterflies, such as abundance, activities (0—resting; 1—foraging, flying, mud puddling, etc), size of butterflies were tested using multiple regression.  Both response and independent variables were log-transformed due to positive skewness of data.  Linearity was examined by plotting the relationship between the response variable (number of detections) and each predictor variable (abundance and size) using Lowess plot.  To investigate multicollinearity between the environmental covariates, a correlation analysis was conducted before using multiple regressions to assess the relationships between the response variable and predictor variables, thereby providing valid parameter estimates and p values.  The data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 21 (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).

 

 

RESULTS

 

Totally, 141 butterfly species were documented in CWS from April to June 2020.  Butterfly species composition varied among different families, with Nymphalidae and Lycanidae constituting 62%.  Families such as Hesperidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae were constituted 16.3%, 12.8%, and 8.5%, respectively.  Only one species (Double-banded Judy) was recorded in the family of Riodinidae.  Thus there is significant variation in the number of species recorded among different families (X2=67.3; df=5; p<0.01).  The majority of butterfly species belong to Nymphalidae and Lycanidae in Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary.

In total, 15 species are found to be endemic to the Western Ghats region (Table 1).  Butterfly species such as Indian Ace, Shiva Sunbeam, Blue Oakleaf, Danaid Eggfly, Gladeye Bushbrown, Malabar Tree Nymph, Tailed Palmfly, Tamil Catseye, and Southern Birdwing are endemic species (Images 1–45).  There are four species of butterflies such as Orchid Tit, Malabar Banded Swallowtail, Crimson Rose, and Danaid Eggfly listed in the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972).  In total there are 20 species of butterflies that are catalogued in the Schedules of IWPA and provide protection to the butterflies.  Common Lineblue is the most abundant butterfly followed by Common Crow and Common Emigrant in CWS.  There were more than 100 individuals of all these butterflies that were recorded in the study area.  There were 42 species that were recorded only once during the time of the survey.

 

Factors that determine detection of butterflies

The size of butterflies varies among families with the largest sized butterflies recorded from Papilionidae and Nymphalidae (102.8±23mm and 70.1±20.1mm).  Hesperidae (37.5mm) and Lycanidae (30.6mm) are the smallest-sized butterflies.  Pieridae and Riodinidae are the medium-sized butterflies (57.7mm and 45mm, respectively).  There is a significant difference in the size of butterflies among different families (F= 118.20; df= 5; p< 0.001).

The relationship between the number of detection, abundance, and size of butterflies were tested using multiple regression.  The number of detection had linear relation with abundance, size, and activities of the butterflies.  The model was highly significant and explained 86.9% variation in the detection of butterflies (F= 407.76; df= 3; p< 0.00; Table 2).  All the three predictors had positive abundance and size positively influenced number of detections.  From the standardized partial regression, it was inferred that abundance (b1= 0.74) had the primary influence on the detections, followed by size (b2= 0.19), and activity of the butterflies (b3= 0.02; Fig. 2).    

 

 

DISCUSSION

 

Composition of butterflies varied among different families.  A total of 141 species of 1,986 individuals were observed from CWS.  Though the study was carried out in a limited period, the number of species reported was higher than earlier reports of the study area (George 2012).  The number of species recorded in the study area was more than other protected areas in Kerala; Sudheendrakumar et al. (2000) recorded 124 species at adjacent Parambikulam Tiger Reserve.  A total of 71 species from Aralam WS (Sreekumar & Balakrishnan 2001) have been recorded.  The results, however, are not directly comparable outside the protected areas.  The number of species recorded in Kerala Agricultural University was 139 species of butterflies (Aneesh et al. 2013).  The reason for comparison is the geographical proximity of KAU compass to the study area.  The study area is part of the network of protected areas such as Peechi-Vazhani towards north, Sholayar Reserve Forest in the south and Parambikulam Tiger Reserve in the east.  The major habitat of the study area is evergreen and moist deciduous forest.  Earlier studies recorded higher species diversity and richness in the similar habitats (Sudheendrakumar et al. 2000).  Thus, the contiguous forest and evergreen habitat supports higher species diversity and endemism in the study area.

Family Nymphalidae and Lycanidae represented 62% of the total.  Families such as Hesperidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae were comparatively less.  They are, 16.3%, 12.8%, and 8.5%, respectively.  Out of two butterflies in the family Riodinidae of Kerala and Western Ghats, one species (Double-banded Judy) was recorded from the study area during the period of study.  There is a significant variation in the species composition among different families.  Family Nymphalidae dominated over other families.  In almost all the studies conducted in butterflies of Western Ghats (Sudheendrakumar et al. 2000; Sreekumar & Balakrishnan 2001; Aneesh et al. 2013) Nymphalidae is the family showing the maximum number of species because this is the family representing more number of species in the Western Ghats.  The study area harbours 40.7% of butterfly species of Western Ghats (Bhakre & Ogle 2018). 

In total there are 20 species of butterflies that are listed in various schedules of Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972) that provide protection to these butterflies.  Only 14.2% of butterflies of recorded species are protected under IWPA.  Hence it is important to include all the endemic species in the IWPA and butterflies which are more charismatic, and rapidly declining species need to be listed under the schedules.  Common Lineblue is the most abundant butterfly followed by Common Crow and Common Emigrant in CWS.  The other species such as Common Mormon, Chocolate Pansy, Narrow-banded Blue Bottle, Blue Mormon, Tailless Lineblue, Three-spot Grass Yellow, and Great Orange Tip were recorded.  Similar species composition was recorded in Parambikulam TR (Sudheendrakumar et al. 2000) and Aralam WS (Sreekumar & Balakrishnan 2001).

 

Factors that determine detection of butterflies

The study highlights the differences in the species detection based on size and abundance and importance of differences in detection probability of butterfly species inventory surveys.  Butterfly species such as Common Lineblue, Common Crow, Common Emigrant, Common Mormon, Three-spot Grass Yellow, Narrow-banded Bluebottle, and Blue Mormon were more frequently sighted.  All these species are conspicuous, larger in size, active flyers, and some species show mud-puddling behaviour as well.  This could have resulted in higher abundance and detectability.  Studies on butterflies have shown that detection of same species tends to vary according to habitats (Pellet et al. 2012).  Further, survey technique could also influence the abundance and density estimation.  Thus our preliminary examination on butterfly detectability showed the influence of size, abundance, and activities.  The number of detection had a direct relation with the abundance, size, and activities of the butterflies. 

The model was highly significant and explained 86.9% variation in the detection of butterflies.  Both abundance and size positively influenced the number of detections.  From the standardized partial regression, abundance (b1= 0.74) had the primary influence on the detection of butterflies, followed by size (b2= 0.19) and activity (b3= 0.02).  Similar species-wise differences in the detection of butterflies were reported in the studies carried out in the United Kingdom (Isaac et al. 2011; Pellet et al. 2012).  Further investigation on the detectability of butterflies based on size, colouration, and habitats will help to estimate population size rather than species abundance.

 

 

Table 1. Butterfly species and their abundance (data sorted in descending order) recorded in Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary.

 

 

Family/ Common name

Species

Abundance of butterflies

IWPA -Schedule

I

I,II

II,IV

 

Hesperidae

 

 

 

 

 

1

Demon sp.

Notocrypta sp.

10

 

 

 

2

Dusky Partwing

Psolos fuligo

8

 

 

 

3

Water Snow Flat

Tagiades litigiosa

7

 

 

 

4

Chestnut Bob

Iambrix salsala luteipalpis

6

 

 

 

5

Golden Angle

Caprona ransonnettii

6

 

 

 

6

Common Banded Demon

Notocrypta paralysos mangla

5

 

 

 

7

Chestnut Angle

Odontoptilum angulata

4

 

 

 

8

Common Spotted Flat

Celaenorrhinus leucocera

3

 

 

 

9

Bevan’s Swift

Pseudoborbo bevani

1

 

 

 

10

Brown Awl

Badamia exclamationis

1

 

 

 

11

Common Red Eye

Matapa aria

1

 

 

 

12

Common Small Flat

Sarangesa dasahara dasahara

1

 

 

 

13

Dark Palm-dart

Telicota bambusae bambusae

1

 

 

 

14

Grass Demon

Udaspes folus

1

 

 

 

15

Indian Ace**

Halpe homolea hindu

1

 

 

1

16

Indian Dartlet

Oriens goloides

1

 

 

 

17

Pygmy Scrub Hopper

Aeromachus pygmaeus

1

 

 

 

18

Restricted Demon

Notocrypta curvifascia

1

 

 

 

19

Spotted Small Flat

Sarangesa purendra hopkinsi

1

 

 

 

20

Suffused Snow Flat

Tagiades gana silvia

1

 

 

 

21

Tamil Grass Dart

Taractrocera ceramas

1

 

 

 

22

Tricoloured Pied Flat

Coladenia indrani indra

1

 

 

 

23

Wax Dart

Cupitha purreea

1

 

 

 

 

Lycaenidae

 

 

 

 

 

24

Common Lineblue

Prosotas nora

240

 

 

 

25

Tailless Lineblue

Prosotas dubiosa

60

 

 

 

26

Tiny Grass Blue

Zizula hylax

44

 

 

 

27

Common Pierrot

Castalius rosimon

29

 

 

 

28

Quaker

Neopithecops zalmora

29

 

 

 

29

Lesser Grass Blue

Zizina otis

26

 

 

 

30

Angled Pierrot

Caleta decidia

21

 

 

 

31

Monkey Puzzle

Rathinda amor

15

 

 

 

32

Common Imperial

Cheritra freja butleri

12

 

 

 

33

Yamfly

Loxura atymnus atymnus

12

 

 

 

34

Plains Cupid

Chilades pandava

10

 

 

 

35

Fluffy Tit

Zeltus amasa

9

 

 

 

36

Common Cerulean

Jamides celeno

8

 

 

 

37

Many-tailed Oakblue

Thaduka multicaudata Kanara

8

 

 

1

38

Metallic Cerulean

Jamides alecto

8

 

 

 

39

Common Hedge Blue

Acytolepis puspa felderi

5

 

 

 

40

Dark Cerulean

Jamides bochus

5

 

 

 

41

Banded Blue Pierrot

Discolampa ethion

3

 

 

 

42

Dark Pierrot

Tarucus ananda

3

 

 

1(IV)

43

Gram Blue

Euchrysops cnejus

3

 

 

1

44

Shiva Sunbeam**

Curetis siva

3

 

 

 

45

Dingy Lineblue

Petrelaea dana

2

 

 

 

46

Indian Sunbeam

Curetis thetis

2

 

 

 

47

Large Oakblue

Arhopala amantes

2

 

 

 

48

Apefly

Spalgis epeus

1

 

 

 

49

Common Silverline

Spindasis vulcanus

1

 

 

 

50

Cornelian

Deudorix epijarbas

1

 

 

 

51

Forget-me-not

Catochrysops Strabo

1

 

 

 

52

Indigo Flash

Rapala varuna

1

 

 

1

53

Lime Blue

Chilades lajus

1

 

 

1

54

Malayan

Megisba malaya

1

 

 

 

55

Orchid Tit

Chliaria othona

1

1

 

 

56

Plain Hedge Blue

Celastrina lavendularis lavendularis

1

 

 

 

57

Pointed Lineblue

Ionolyce helicon viola

1

 

 

1

58

Redspot

Zesius chrysomallus

1

 

 

 

59

Slate Flash

Rapala manea

1

 

 

 

 

Nymphalidae

 

 

 

 

 

60

Common Crow

Euploea core

168

 

 

 

61

Chocolate Pansy

Junonia iphita

71

 

 

 

62

Tamil Yeoman

Cirrochroa thais

46

 

 

 

63

Clipper

Parthenos Sylvia

45

 

 

1

64

Common Four-ring

Ypthima huebneri

45

 

 

 

65

Common Castor

Ariadne merione

24

 

 

 

66

Rustic

Cupha erymanthis

21

 

 

 

67

Bushbrown Sp.

Mycalesis sp.

18

 

 

 

68

Common Evening Brown

Melanitis leda

18

 

 

 

69

Great Eggfly

Hypolimnas bolina

13

 

 

 

70

Striped Tiger

Danaus genutia

12

 

 

 

71

Blue Tiger

Tirumala limniace

10

 

 

 

72

Plain Tiger

Danaus chrysippus

10

 

 

 

73

Tamil Lacewing**

Cethosia nietneri

10

 

 

 

74

Angled Castor

Ariadne Ariadne

9

 

 

 

75

Blue Oakleaf**

Kallima horsfieldii

8

 

 

 

76

Common Nawab

Polyura athamas

8

 

 

 

77

Dark Blue Tiger

Tirumala septentrionis

8

 

 

 

78

Common Sailer

Neptis hylas

7

 

 

 

79

Cruiser

Vindula erota

7

 

 

 

80

Glassy Tiger

Parantica aglea

7

 

 

 

81

Lemon Pansy

Junonia lemonias

7

 

 

 

82

Autumn Leaf

Doleschallia bisaltide

6

 

 

1

83

Extra Lascar

Pantoporia sandaka

6

 

 

 

84

Tailed Palmfly**

Elymnia caudata

5

 

 

 

85

Commander

Moduza procris

4

 

 

 

86

Gladeye Bushbrown**

Mycalesis patnia

4

 

 

 

87

Grey Pansy

Junonia atlites

4

 

 

 

88

Chestnut-streaked Sailer

Neptis jumbah

3

 

 

 

89

Dark Evening Brown

Melanitis phedima

3

 

 

 

90

Dark-branded Bushbrown

Mycalesis mineus

3

 

 

 

91

Grey Count

Tanaecia lepidea

3

 

 

1

92

Yellow Pansy

Junonia hierta

3

 

 

 

93

Black Prince

Rohana parisatis

2

 

 

 

94

Blackvein Sergeant

Athyma ranga

2

 

 

1

95

Common Lascar

Pantoporia hordonia

2

 

 

 

96

Danaid Eggfly**

Hypolimnas misippus

2

 

1

 

97

Medus Bushbrown

Orsotriaena medus

2

 

 

 

98

Tamil Catseye**

Zipaetis saitis

2

 

 

1

99

Black Rajah

Charaxes solon

1

 

 

 

100

Blue Admiral

Kaniska canace

1

 

 

 

101

Brown King Crow

Euploea klugii

1

 

 

 

102

Common Five-ring

Ypthima baldus

1

 

 

 

103

Common Three-ring

Ypthima asterope

1

 

 

 

104

Double-branded Crow

Euploea Sylvester

1

 

 

 

105

Great Evening Brown

Melanitis zitenius

1

 

 

1

106

Malabar Tree Nymph**

Idea malabarica

1

 

 

 

107

Peacock Pansy

Junonia almana

1

 

 

 

108

Plain Tawny Rajah

Charaxes psaphon

1

 

 

 

109

Red-spot Duke

Dophla evelina

1

 

 

1

110

Tawny Coster

Acraea terpsicore

1

 

 

 

 

Papilionidae

 

 

 

 

 

111

Common Mormon

Papilio polytes

73

 

 

 

112

Narrow-banded Bluebottle

Graphium teredon

65

 

 

 

113

Blue Mormon

Papilio polymnestor

64

 

 

 

114

Southern Birdwing**

Troides minos

20

 

 

 

115

Tailed Jay

Graphium Agamemnon

19

 

 

 

116

Common Jay

Graphium doson

16

 

 

 

117

Red Helen

Papilio helenus

15

 

 

 

118

Five-bar Swordtail

Graphium antiphates

11

 

 

 

119

Paris Peacock

Papilio paris

11

 

 

 

120

Malabar Raven**

Papilio dravidarum

10

 

 

 

121

Lime

Papilio demoleus

5

 

 

 

122

Malabar Rose**

Pachliopta pandiyana

5

 

 

 

123

Common Rose

Pachliopta aristolochiae

4

 

 

 

124

Malabar Banded Swallowtail**

Papilio liomedon

4

1

 

 

125

Common Mime

Papilio clytia

2

 

 

 

126

Spot Swordtail

Graphium nomius

2

 

 

 

127

Common Banded Peacock

Papilio crino

1

 

 

 

128

Crimson Rose

Pachliopta hector

1

1

 

 

 

Pieridae

 

 

 

 

 

129

Common Emigrant

Catopsilia Pomona

112

 

 

 

130

Three-spot Grass Yellow

Eurema blanda

55

 

 

 

131

Common Grass Yellow

Eurema hecabe

53

 

 

 

132

Great Orange Tip

Hebomoia glaucippe

50

 

 

 

133

Nilgiri Grass Yellow**

Eurema nilgiriensis

28

 

 

 

134

Common Wanderer

Pareronia hippia

24

 

 

 

135

Common Albatross

Appias albina

22

 

 

 

136

One-spot Grass Yellow

Eurema andersonii

18

 

 

1

137

Lesser Gull

Cepora nadina

11

 

 

1

138

Mottled Emigrant

Catopsilia pyranthe

3

 

 

 

139

Psyche

Leptosia nina

3

 

 

 

140

Spotless Grass Yellow

Eurema laeta

1

 

 

 

 

Riodinidae

 

 

 

 

 

141

Double-banded Judy

Abisara bifasciata

3

 

 

 

**- Endemic species