Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 September 2020 | 12(13): 16795–16818

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6028.12.13.16795-16818

#6028 | Received 21 April 2020 | Final received 03 September 2020 | Finally accepted 09 September 2019

 

 

 

Rapid multi-taxa assessment around Dhamapur Lake (Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India) using citizen science reveals significant odonate records

 

Neha Mujumdar 1, Dattaprasad Sawant 2, Amila Sumanapala 3, Parag Rangnekar 4 & Pankaj Koparde5

 

1 Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Opp. Lion Gate, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400001, India.

2 Department of Community Medicine, Seth G S Medical College and K E M Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012, India.

3 Department of Zoology and Environment Sciences, University of Colombo, Colombo 00700, Sri Lanka.

4 Foundation for Environment Research and Conservation, #407, 3-A, Susheela Seawinds, Alto-Vaddem, Vasco-da-Gama, Goa 403802, India.

5 School of Ecology & Environmental Management, Faculty of Sustainability Studies, MIT World Peace University, Kothrud, Pune, Maharashtra 411038, India.

1 n.mujumdar@bnhs.org (corresponding author), 2 dattaprasad.101@gmail.com, 3 apsumanapala@gmail.com, 4 rangnekarparag@gmail.com, 5 pankajkoparde@gmail.com

 

 

 

Abstract: In the present work, we discuss the results of a four-day long rapid survey around Dhamapur Lake and surrounding freshwater habitats in the Sindhudurg District of Maharashtra through public participation.  In total, 61 odonates, 51 butterflies, 17 species of amphibians and reptiles, 90 birds, and four mammals are documented.  Our observations taken over a brief time reflect the importance of citizen science in documenting local biodiversity.  We report involvement of citizen scientists in recovering significant odonate records for the state.

 

Keywords: Biodiversity, conservation, freshwater ecosystem,  northern Western Ghats, Odonata, wetland.

 

Abbreviations: IUCN – International Union for Conservation of Nature, WPA – Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.

 

 

 

Editor: Priya Davidar, Sigur Nature Trust, Nilgiris, India. Date of publication: 26 September 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Mujumdar, N., D. Sawant, A. Sumanapala, P. Rangnekar & P. Koparde (2020). Rapid multi-taxa assessment around Dhamapur Lake (Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India) using citizen science reveals significant odonate records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(13): 16795–16818. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6028.12.13.16795-16818

 

Copyright: © Mujumdar et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Self funded.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Neha Mujumdar -  working as scientist at Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai. She has documented diversity and ecological aspects of butterflies and odonates in the Western Ghats. She is one of the admins of DrgaonflySouthAsia. Website: https://dragonflysouthasia.wordpress.com/.  Dattaprasad Sawant - a doctor by profession and graduated from GMC JJ Hospital, Mumbai. He is pursuing MD in Preventive and Social Medicine in Seth GSMC and KEM Hospital, Mumbai. He is documenting Lepidoptera and Odonata diversity of Konkan region. He has described two new Odonata species from Maharashtra with Shantanu Joshi. Amila Prasanna Sumanapala - a Sri Lankan field researcher primarily studying Odonata diversity, ecology, biogeography and conservation. Also interested in arthropods and birds. Currently pursuing M.Phil on Odonata at University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Parag Rangnekar - researcher and ecologist based in Goa with interest in avian, butterfly and odonate diversity and ecology.  He has described two new species of dragonflies from the State. He operates various community-based ecotourism initiatives.  Dr. Pankaj Koparde is an evolutionary ecologist, working as an assistant professor at MIT World Peace University. He is interested in science-driven conservation research and outreach. He is one of the admins of DrgaonflySouthAsia. website: https://www.chaturullu.in/

 

Author contribution: NM collected data in the field on butterflies, odonates and herps, contributed images, prepared checklists and wrote the manuscript.  DS collected data on butterflies and odonates in the field, helped in their identification and manuscript editing, and contributed images.  AS collected data in the field on butterflies, odonates, herps and birds, contributed images, helped in manuscript editing.  PR collected data in the field on butterflies, odonates and birds, prepared checklists, helped in manuscript editing.  PK conceptualized the idea and organized the field data collection drive, collected data in the field on odonates and birds, and reviewed manuscript draft.

 

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Mr. Sachin Desai, Mr. Mohammad Shaikh, the team Syamantak and Sindhudurg Wetland Brief Documentation Committee, who were instrumental in helping with logistics and sharing their knowledge on Dhamapur Lake area.  We would like to thank Dr. K.A. Subramanian (scientist-E, Zoological Survey of India) for providing comments on unidentified odonates.  We are grateful to Mr. Saunak Pal for identification help of herpetofauna and Mr. Prosenjit Dawn for providing critical comments on the manuscript.  We thank Mr. Samadhan Chavan, Deputy Conservator of Forests (DCF), Sawantwadi and other forest department personnel for their encouragement and support.  We are thankful to all the participants for making the meet successful.  Many thanks to Dr. Muralidhar Gopalakrishna, Ameya Deshpande, Vaibhav Ugare, Balachandran V., and Vivek Chandran A. for sharing their photographs.

 

Abstract: In the present work, we discuss the results of a four-day long rapid survey around Dhamapur Lake and surrounding freshwater habitats in the Sindhudurg District of Maharashtra through public participation.  In total, 61 odonates, 51 butterflies, 17 species of amphibians and reptiles, 90 birds, and four mammals are documented.  Our observations taken over a brief time reflect the importance of citizen science in documenting local biodiversity.  We report involvement of citizen scientists in recovering significant odonate records for the state.

 

Keywords: Biodiversity, conservation, freshwater ecosystem,  northern Western Ghats, Odonata, wetland.

 

Abbreviations: IUCN – International Union for Conservation of Nature, WPA – Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The indeterminate exploitation of the natural resources by humans has caused considerable alterations in the ecosystem functioning and biodiversity loss through urbanization, habitat destruction, habitat modification, and degradation of vital freshwater resources (Gleick et al. 2001; McKinney 2002; Diaz et al. 2006; Dudgeon et al. 2006).  Despite the current body of knowledge of environmental degradation, several regions remain less explored in terms of data on biodiversity.  The lack of knowledge on biodiversity hampers the decision making at policy level and hence considered as one of the global priorities when forming conservation frameworks (Meyer et al. 2015; Sorte & Somveille 2020).  In recent years, citizen science has proved to be a beneficial tool in collecting biodiversity data through people’s participation (Theobald et al. 2015; Chandler et al. 2017; Mckinley et al. 2017).  It is used for research, to understand distribution and possible threats to multiple taxa like insects, amphibians, birds, and mammals (Kolby 2015; Forrester et al. 2017; Zapponi et al. 2017; Sorte & Somveille 2020).  In India, the practice of citizen science has proved as a useful tool for biodiversity documentation at finer spatial scale (Badrinath 2015; Seshadri & Gururaja 2015; SoIB 2020).

DragonflySouthAsia (DSA), a part of DiversityIndia (http://diversityindia.org/), is a citizen science network of Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) watchers and researchers from the Indian subcontinent (https://dragonflyindmeet.wordpress.com/). DSA has been actively involved in conservation outreach and research, popularizing odonatology and freshwater conservation through meets and workshops every year since 2014 (Andrew et al. 2015; Dawn & Roy 2017; Koparde et al. 2018, 2020), and facilitating collaborative research (Mujumdar et al. 2018).  In the current survey, we used a combination of rapid multi-taxa assessment and citizen science to document biodiversity in Dhamapur Lake area taking odonates as target taxa.  Here, we demonstrate that peoples’ participation in science can provide reliable biodiversity data in a very short period of time and help highlight the potential of the lake to support the urgency to protect it.

 

 

Methods

 

Study area

Sindhudurg District, situated at the southernmost tip of Maharashtra, is one of the biodiversity rich areas of the state and includes parts of northern Western Ghats, locally known as Sahyadri Hill ranges.  Dhamapur Lake (16.033°N & 73.593°E; 22m) is located in the Malvan Tehsil of Sindhudurg District (Figure 1, Image 1).  The climate of Malvan Tehsil remains hot and humid throughout the year having an annual average temperature 27.1°C and average annual precipitation of 2,865mm (Malvan summary 2020).

The lake is a 400 years old human-made lake with an area of 22 hectares.  It provides water to Malvan City (TERI 2013).  The surrounding villages Dhamapur and Walvali depend on its water for domestic use and irrigation purposes.  The forest around the lake is moist deciduous and categorised as reserve forest.  Streams having varying canopy cover, flow along one side of the lake (Image 3), while the other side is surrounded by marshes and paddy fields (Image 2).

 

Survey sites

We surveyed various freshwater habitats like lakes, ponds, wells, and streams around Dhamapur Village as our focal taxon was odonates.  We also surveyed the natural vegetation, paddy-fields and forest patches around these habitats.  Details of the study sites are given in Table 1 (Images 2–6).

 

Data collection

The 6th DragonflySouthAsia meet was conducted during 10–13 October 2019 wherein a total of 25 people participated from India and Sri Lanka.  A few members of Syamantak, a local community working towards conservation of wetlands in the Sindhudurg area (http://syamantak.cfsites.org/), also took part.

On all the four days, we opportunistically surveyed the sites for rapid assessment of selective invertebrates and vertebrates.  Rapid multi-taxa assessments are used to yield quick yet reliable results.  These are cost-effective, useful to make inventories of the local biodiversity, and the information obtained in terms of species richness can be used potentially to represent the community structure (Oliver & Beattie 1993, 1996).  We used citizen science model for data collection and to document the maximum number of species (Chandler et al. 2017).  The process involves participation in the survey by volunteers with little or no expertise on the taxa whose observations were verified by the experts later on.

The participants were split into four different groups, each containing six to seven members, to cover different habitats surrounding the lake (Image 2 & 3).  They were trained in using iNaturalist app (https://www.inaturalist.org/).  Taxa like odonates, butterflies, birds, and mammals were surveyed in the morning hours, i.e., from 08.00h to 12.30h.  Bird activity was also recorded during afternoon hours 14.00–16.00 h.  Amphibians, reptiles, nocturnal birds, and mammals were recorded during 20.30–23.00 h.  Various habitats such as the moist deciduous forests, marshlands, open grasslands, paddy fields, and streams fed by Dhamapur Lake were surveyed by participants (Images 7–9).

Identification of odonates was based on field guides (Subramanian 2009) and taxonomy monographs (Fraser 1933, 1934, 1936).  For identification, we referred to Bhakare & Ogale (2018) for butterflies, Grimmett et al. (2011) for birds, and Menon (2014) for mammals.  Amphibians and reptiles were identified with multiple references like Daniel (2002), Whitaker & Captain (2004), Gururaja (2012), Padhye et al. (2015), and Pal et al. (2018).  We documented most of the species in the field using point-and-shoot digital as well as SLR cameras.  In case of ambiguity, we took photographs of the specimens on the field and later identified them to the species level with the help of field guides and taxa experts, especially in the case of amphibians and reptiles.  All observations were compiled in the form of checklists adding categories according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species (hereafter, IUCN) at the end of the meet (IUCN 2020).  Species of odonates, butterflies, and birds were arranged according to the family level and those of amphibians, reptiles and mammals according to the order level using standard references like Varshney & Smetacek (2015), Kamalakannan & Venkatraman (2017), Subramanian & Babu (2017), Aengals et al. (2018), Bhakare & Ogale (2018), Dinesh et al. (2019), Praveen et al. (2019), and Uetz et al. (2019).

 

 

Results

 

In total, we documented 61 odonates (Table 2), 51 butterflies (Table 3), 17 species of amphibians and reptiles (Table 4 & 5), 90 birds (Table 6), and four mammals (Table 7) during the tenure.  We encountered the newly described Ceriagrion chromothorax Joshi & Sawant, 2019 in both Dhamapur and Thakurwadi lakes (Image 17).  As per the status provided by Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 (hereafter, WPA), Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer, [1777]) and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764) are included in schedule I, while Cynitia lepidea (Butler, 1868) and Parthenos sylvia (Cramer, 1775) are under schedule II among butterflies.  In the case of birds, the majority of the species, i.e., 80 out of 90 species belong to schedule IV.  Three species are categorised as Near Threatened, namely, Anhinga melanogaster Pennant, 1769, Anthracoceros coronatus (Boddaert, 1783), and Brachypodius priocephalus (Jerdon, 1839), while Buceros bicornis Linnaeus, 1758 is Vulnerable.  A. coronatus and B. bicornis are included under schedule I whereas A. melanogaster and B. priocephalus are under schedule IV of WPA.

The anurans, Euphlyctis cynophlyctis (Schneider, 1799), E. hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834), Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802), and Polypedates maculatus (Gray, 1830) are Least Concern according to IUCN and first three are included under schedule IV of WPA.  In order Serpentes among reptiles, Fowlea piscator (Schneider, 1799) and Ptyas mucosa (Linnaeus, 1758) belong to schedule II, Oligodon taeniolatus (Jerdon, 1853) and Amphiesma stolatum (Linnaeus, 1758) belong to schedule IV of WPA and remain Not Evaluated by IUCN.  No species in Order Sauria is included under WPA but categorised as Least Concern according to IUCN with exception of Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802) which is Not Evaluated.  The mammalian species Herpestes edwardsii (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818), Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812), and Funambulus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1766) are Least Concern while Semnopithecus hypoleucos Blyth, 1841 is Vulnerable as per IUCN.  The first two are part of schedule II of WPA while the latter are not included under any schedule.

 

Comments on significant records of odonates

Following odonates observed at Thakurwadi Lake on 12 October 2019 are significant records considering their current known geographical distributions.  The lake is filled with emergent and submergent aquatic vegetation including members of family Nymphaeaceae (Image 4). 

Lestes praemorsus decipiens Kirby, 1894

A pair was observed in the marshy area of the lake.  The male was identified as Lestes praemorsus on the basis of characters like thorax with greenish antehumeral stirpes, crenulate on the outer sides; segment nine with dorso-lateral blue marking; blunt and curved cerci with whitish hairs and paraprocts blackish, short with white hairs at the tip (Image 10).  The female looked similar to the male with profound thoracic antehumeral stripes. Anal appendages were whitish, short, and pointed (Image 11).  The species is distributed from western India to Assam (Fraser 1933), Andaman Islands and across the northern parts of the country and consist of two subspecies L. praemorsus sikkima Fraser, 1929 and L. praemorsus decipiens Kirby, 1893 (Prasad & Varshney 1995; Dow & Sharma 2020).  L.p. sikkima is confined to Sikkim in northeastern India and is distinguished by having a metallic posthumeral stripe (Fraser 1933).  The male specimen observed at the lake lacks any metallic posthumeral markings (Image 12), thus it is concluded to be representing the widespread subspecies L.p. dicipiens.  It should, however, also be noted that the taxonomic status of the subspecies of L. praemorsus is insufficiently resolved (Kosterin 2019).  DS found the species in September 2017 at a natural pond with aquatic weeds in Vimleshwar Village of the district.  Considering the distribution in the mentioned references and citizen science portals (Anonymous 2020a), we note that these are the first confirmed records of the subspecies from Maharashtra.

2.   Platylestes cf. platystylus

A single female individual sighted at the lake seems to be closer to Platylestes platystylus (Rambur, 1842) based on the pterostigma (quadrate as opposite to elongate in Lestes spp.) and thoracic markings (presence of black spots on each side) (Image 13).  We did not collect the specimen hence species level identification was not confirmed.  We treat our record as Platylestes cf. platystylus.  The species P. platystylus has distribution in West Bengal in India (Fraser 1933; Prasad & Varshney 1995; Sharma 2010).  It is also reported from Tripura and Kerala on citizen science portals (Anonymous 2020b; https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=6681&taxon_id=109709).  Rison & Chandran (2020) recorded the species from few localities in Kerala recently.  During present study, the female was seen curling abdomen on an emergent aquatic plant, indicating probable attempt at egg-laying.  

3. Pseudagrion malabaricum Fraser, 1924 

Pseudagrion malabaricum was first reported from Maharashtra State by Tiple et al. (2013) in the Vidarbha region.  Subsequently, this species has also been reported from Devgad Taluka and Chaukul Village in Sindhudurg District (Anonymous 2020c).  During the present survey, several adults were observed among the reeds and grassy aquatic vegetation near the lake edge (Image 14).  The species was identified based on the cerci being shorter than abdomen segment 10 and not bifid at apex (Image 15).  The only other Pseudagrion species recorded in the habitat, P. microcephalum, has bifid cerci clearly longer than the segment 10 while the morphologically similar species P. australasiae has cerci bifid at apex as seen in profile (Fraser 1933). 

4.      Gynacantha cf. khasiaca

A single male individual was observed in the vegetation surrounding the lake.  The specimen was recognised separate from the other Gynacantha spp. recorded during the study and showed similar characters to those of Gynacantha khasiaca MacLachlan, 1896 i.e. paraproct longer than half of the length of cerci (Image 18) and two lateral brownish stripes on the greenish thorax (Image 19).  G. khasiaca is distributed in West Bengal, Assam and Khasi hills in Meghalaya in India (Fraser 1936).  Few studies further add the southernmost distribution of the species to West Bengal (Mitra 2002; Payra et al. 2017).  We confirm the observed specimen as Gynacantha cf. khasiaca owing to confirmation of the mentioned limited characters as we did not collect the specimen.  It is an interesting opportunistic record from the western India considering its affinity to G. khasiaca with the known distribution range in northeastern parts of the country (Mitra et al. 2010).  It requires detailed study of the specimen further to confirm its identity.

5.   Indothemis limbata sita Campion, 1923 

Indothemis limbata was described as Trithemis limbata Selys, 1891 based on specimens from Myanmar and Malay Peninsula.  A different form of the species was described as I. limbata sita from Sri Lanka, based on the wing venation and markings (Campion 1923).  Later studies considered I. limbata limbata to be restricted to Myanmar and southeastern Asia and I. limbata sita to be restricted to the western India and Sri Lanka barring one record from Odisha (Fraser 1936; Prasad & Varshney 1995).  Babu et al. (2009) reported I. limbata limbata as a new record for the state mentioning the distribution as Odisha, West Bengal, parts of northeastern India, and Karnataka.  State checklists of odonates mention the species with the same reference (Director 2012; Tiple & Koparde 2015 ).  The authors considered I. limbata sita in the checklist of India (Subramanian & Babu 2017), but there is no mention of the species in the Western Ghats atlas (Subramanian et al. 2018).  Opportunistic observations indicate the presence of the species from Assam (Anonymous 2020d) and Uttara Kannada, Karnataka (https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=707419235973335&set=gm.740960425953503).  These studies show that there has been a discrepancy on the identity and distribution of both the subspecies.  The new record of I. limbata limbata from Maharashtra needs to be confirmed by re-examining the specimens and comparing with the holotypes since all the other records of the subspecies are from Odisha and northeastern parts India and the paper didn’t include any illustration or image of the specimens studied.

Present records from the lake show the presence of at least one adult (Image 20) and one sub-adult male (abdomen with yellowish markings) (Image 21).  We confirm the record as Indothemis limbata sita based on characters of the adult male such as hyaline wing apices and 10-1/2 antenodal nervures in the forewing (apices bordered as blackish-brown and 11-1/2 - 12-1/2 antenodal nervures in I. limbata limbata).  At species level I. limbata is distinguished from the congeneric species I. carnatica (Fabricius, 1798) by black body with black anal appendages and base of hindwing with extensive brown marking as opposite to violaceous body with white anal appendages and small amber yellow colour at hindwing base in the latter.  I. carnatica was not recorded during the present study but is reported from peninsular India (Dow 2019).  DS has observed it in Sindhudurg District (Anonymous 2020e).  Image 20 has been used for comparison in the novel description of Bradinopyga konkanensis from western coastal parts of the state (Joshi & Sawant 2020).  We highlight this as the first confirmed record of the subspecies from the western Maharashtra.

 

 

Discussion

 

Inventorying and monitoring biodiversity at a regional scale is essential as it provides vital information on the occurrence and distribution of local diversity, and their associations with local habitat.  A study by Kunte et al. (1999) recommended biodiversity surveys at a local level encompassing taxa from diverse groups and not just flagship vertebrate species like birds and mammals.  It further states that building a network of long-term biodiversity monitoring projects with an understanding of landscape elements (e.g., vegetation types, microhabitats requirements of particular taxa) in ecologically sensitive areas such as the Western Ghats is important.

The current study dwells on two important aspects discussed as following -

 

a) Role of citizen science in biodiversity documentation

The very key aspect of citizen science is public engagement in data collection through which they can connect with nature and make a positive contribution towards the environment.  It acts as a bridge between researchers and the local community, including the stakeholders.  The participants actively participated in the current survey and documented different taxa of the study area with increased interest towards local biodiversity.  Their effort resulted in the multi-taxa checklist of Dhamapur Lake and surroundings and also added two subspecies to the state Odonata checklist.  They also uploaded their observations on the online database of iNaturalist that served the purpose of data sharing on a broader platform.

 

b) Conservation implications of Dhamapur Lake and surroundings

Among the odonates, presence of the species Platylestes cf. platystylus and Gynacantha cf. khasiaca, possible new records to the state (Tiple & Koparde 2015; Koparde et al. 2020), highlights the potential of the lakes for more systematic Odonata surveys in the future.  Habitats around Dhamapur Lake support a rich and diverse fauna.  The scheduled butterflies like D. bisaltide, P. sylvia, and C. lepidea and the key-stone bird species such as A. coronatus and B. bicornis are indicator species inhabiting dense moist forests.  We observed a colour aberrant individual of Psilopogon viridis (Boddaert, 1783) during the survey (Image 46).  We based the species identification, in the absence of prominent cheek and head coloration, on size and iris skin colour (black as in P. viridis).  We speculate that the bird was either a leucistic or ino individual given features such as normal eye pigmentation, iris skin and beak colour (Grouw 2006; Koparde et al. 2014).  Habitats around Dhamapur Lake are also known to harbour a large variety of animals including Lutrogale perspicillata (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826) - Smooth Coated Otter, a Vulnerable species according to IUCN.  The biodiversity action plan prepared for Sindhudurg and Malvan districts mentions the lake as a large wetland and as a unique feature of Malvan Tehsil, further mentioning that the lake has the potential to be developed as a Ramsar site, however, biodiversity has to be studied (TERI 2013).

Biodiversity studies have been focused at certain locations in Sindhudurg District.  Places like Amboli, a hill station in Sawantwadi Tehsil, attracts many nature enthusiasts and tourists every year.  Explorations by the researchers have resulted in a number of scientific publications (Bhakare & Ogale 2018; Satose et al. 2018; Rao et al. 2019) and new species (Vogel & Rooijen 2011; Sayyed et al. 2018; Chaitanya et al. 2019) from this area.  There are hardly any long-term monitoring studies in this area facing high tourism pressure.

Current work done over a period of just four days revealed some interesting faunal records, especially for odonates, birds, and mammals that tried to fill the knowledge gap on the biodiversity information of the district.  The findings, though primary, form the base for future monitoring and conservation of the Dhamapur Lake area. We recommend systematic biodiversity surveys in this underexplored but potentially biodiversity rich area for conservation of local freshwater ecosystems such as the streams originating from the lake, and important rivers such as Karli River.  Data collected on the local biodiversity can be used to target local students for awareness programmes and to promote sustainable tourism activities without disturbing the integrity of the lake and nearby forest, in order to avail the resources in the long run.

 

 

Table 1. Study sites of Dhamapur lake area.

Survey sites

Survey locality

GPS coordinates and elevation

Habitat

S1

Dhamapur Lake (Image 1 & 2)

16.0335°N & 73.5939°E,

22m

Surrounded by moist deciduous forest and streams on one side and marshlands, paddy fields on other

S2

Stream along Dhamapur Lake (Image 3)

16.0325°N & 73.5952°E,

18m

Stream of varied canopy cover, fed by the lake flowing alongside through moist-deciduous and semi-evergreen vegetation; intermittent rocky areas forming temporary puddles; presence of algae on the rock surface

S3

Thakurwadi Lake (Image 4)

16.0112°N & 73.6474°E,

14m

Marshland with aquatic vegetation

S4

Kasartaka Stream (Image 5 & 6)

16.0448°N & 73.5746°E,

65m

A stream with varying water depth from open shallow areas to areas with 0.6–0.9 m water depth and closed canopy; intermittent grass patches and herbs along the banks

S5

Ponds and wells

16.0288°N & 73.5918°E,

17m

Temporary and permanent water sources in nearby residential areas

 

 

Table 2. Checklist of Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) species.

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

IUCN status

Locality of observation

 

Suborder Zygoptera

 

 

 

 

Family Lestidae

 

 

 

1

Lestes praemorsus decipiens Kirby, 1893

Sapphire-eyed Spreadwing

LC

TL

2

Platylestes cf. platystylus

-

-

TL

 

Family Platystictidae

 

 

 

3

Protosticta gravelyi Laidlaw, 1915

Pied Reedtail

LC

KS

 

Family Calopterygidae

 

 

 

4

Vestalis gracilis (Rambur, 1842)

Clear-winged Forest Glory

LC

S

 

Family Chlorocyphidae

 

 

 

5

Heliocypha bisignata (Hagen in Selys, 1853)

Stream Ruby

LC

S

6

Libellago indica (Fraser, 1928)

Southern Heliodor

LC

S

 

Family Euphaeidae

 

 

 

7

Euphaea fraseri (Laidlaw, 1920)

Malabar Torrent Dart

LC

S; KS

 

Family Platycnemididae

 

 

 

8

Copera marginipes (Rambur, 1842)

Yellow Bush Dart

LC

DL

9

Copera vittata Selys, 1863

Blue Bush Dart

LC

DL

10

Disparoneura quadrimaculata (Rambur, 1842)

Black-winged Bamboo Tail

LC

KS

11

Prodasineura verticalis (Selys, 1860)

Black Bambootail

LC

S

 

Family Coenagrionidae

 

 

 

12

Aciagrion occidentale Laidlaw, 1919

Green-striped Slender Dartlet

LC

TL

13

Agriocnemis pieris Laidlaw, 1919

White Dartlet   

LC

S; TL

14

Agriocnemis pygmaea (Rambur, 1842)

Pygmy Dartlet

LC

M; KS

15

Agriocnemis splendidissima Laidlaw, 1919

Splendid Dartlet

NE

M; KS

16

Ceriagrion cerinorubellum (Brauer, 1865)

Orange-tailed Marsh Dart

LC

DL

17

Ceriagrion chromothorax Joshi and Sawant, 2019

Sindhudurg Marsh Dart

NE

TL; DL

18

Ceriagrion coromandelianum (Fabricius, 1798)

Coromandel Marsh Dart

LC

DL

19

Ceriagrion rubiae Laidlaw, 1916

Orange Marsh Dart

NE

TL

20

Ischnura rubilio Selys, 1876

Western Golden Dartlet

LC

M

21

Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842)

Senegal Golden Dartlet

LC

TL; DL

22

Mortonagrion varralli Fraser, 1920

Brown Dartlet

DD

DL; S

23

Pseudagrion decorum (Rambur, 1842)

Three-striped Blue Dart

LC

DL

24

Pseudagrion indicum Fraser, 1924

Yellow-striped Blue Dart

DD

KS; S

25

Pseudagrion malabaricum Fraser, 1924

Malabar Sprite

LC

M; TL

26

Pseudagrion microcephalum (Rambur, 1842)

Blue Grass Dartlet

LC

M; DL

 

Suborder Anisoptera

 

 

 

 

Family Aeshnidae

 

 

 

27

Anax guttatus (Burmeister, 1839)

Blue-Tailed Green Darner

LC

DL

28

Anax immaculifrons Rambur, 1842

Blue Darner

LC

KS

29

Anax indicus Lieftinck, 1942

Lesser Green Emperor

LC

DL

30

Gynacantha dravida Lieftinck, 1960

Brown Darner

LC

KS

31

Gynacantha cf. khasiaca

-

-

TL

 

Family Gomphidae

 

 

 

32

Ictinogomphus rapax (Rambur, 1842)

Common Clubtail

LC

DL

33

Paragomphus lineatus (Selys, 1850)

Common Hooktail

LC

KS

 

Family Macromiidae

 

 

 

34

Epophthalmia vittata Burmeister, 1839

Common Torrent Hawk

LC

DL

 

Family Libellulidae

 

 

 

35

Acisoma panorpoides Rambur, 1842

Trumpet Tail

LC

DL

36

Brachydiplax sobrina (Rambur, 1842)

Little Blue Marsh Hawk

LC

DL

37

Bradinopyga geminata (Rambur, 1842)

Granite Ghost

LC

W

38

Crocothemis servilia (Drury, 1770)

Ruddy Marsh Skimmer

LC

DL

39

Diplacodes nebulosa (Fabricius, 1793)

Black-tipped Ground Skimmer

LC

DL

40

Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, 1842)

Ground Skimmer

LC

DL

41

Hydrobasileus croceus (Brauer, 1867)

Amber-winged Marsh Glider

LC

P

42

Indothemis limbata sita Campion, 1923

Restless Demon

LC

TL

43

Neurothemis fulvia (Drury, 1773)

Fulvous Forest Skimmer 

LC

TL

44

Neurothemis tullia (Drury, 1773)

Pied Paddy Skimmer

LC

M

45

Orthetrum chrysis (Selys, 1891)

Brown-backed Red Marsh Hawk

LC

DL

46

Orthetrum glaucum (Brauer, 1865)

Blue Marsh Hawk

LC

DL

47

Orthetrum luzonicum (Brauer, 1868)

Tricolored Marsh Hawk

LC

DL

48

Orthetrum pruinosum (Burmeister, 1839)

Crimson-tailed Marsh Hawk

LC

DL

49

Orthetrum sabina (Drury, 1770)

Green Marsh Hawk

LC

DL

50

Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)

Wandering Glider

LC

DL

51

Potamarcha congener (Rambur, 1842)

Yellow-tailed Ashy Skimmer

LC

DL

52

Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur, 1842)

Rufous Marsh Glider

LC

DL

53

Rhyothemis variegata (Linnaeus, 1763)

Common Picturewing

LC

DL

54

Tetrathemis platyptera Selys, 1878

Pygmy Skimmer

LC

KS

55

Tholymis tillarga (Fabricius, 1798)

Coral-tailed Cloud Wing

LC

DL

56

Tramea basilaris (Palisot de Beauvois, 1805)

Red Marsh Trotter

LC

DL

57

Tramea limbata (Desjardins, 1832)

Black Marsh Trotter

LC

KS

58

Trithemis aurora (Burmeister, 1839)

Crimson Marsh Glider

LC

DL

59

Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842)

Black Stream Glider

LC

KS

60

Zygonix iris Selys, 1869

Iridescent Stream Glider

LC

KS

61

Zyxomma petiolatum Rambur, 1842

Brown Dusk Hawk

LC

W

NE—Not Evaluated | DD—Data Deficient | LC—Least Concern | DL—Dhamapur Lake | KS—Kasartaka Stream | TL—Thakurwadi Lake | S—stream along Dhamapur Lake | M—marshes | W—well | P—pond.

 

 

Table 3. Checklist of butterflies.

 

 

Scientific name

Common name

IUCN status

WPA schedule

 

Family Papilionidae

 

 

 

1

Graphium agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tailed Jay

NE

-

2

Graphium teredon (C. & R. Felder, 1865)

Southern Bluebottle

NE

-

3

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758

Lime Butterfly

NE

-

4

Papilio polymnestor Cramer, [1775]

Blue Mormon

NE

-

5

Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758

Common Mormon

NE

-

 

Family Hesperiidae

 

 

 

6

Aeromachus pygmaeus (Fabricius, 1775)

Pygmy Scrub Hopper

NE

-

7

Ampittia dioscorides (Fabricius,1793)

Bush Hopper

NE

-

8

Iambrix salsala (Moore, [1866])

Chestnut Bob

NE

-

9

Oriens goloides (Moore, [1881])

Ceylon Dartlet

NE

-

10

Parnara guttatus (Bremer & Grey, [1852])

Straight Swift

NE

-

11

Pelopidas sp. Walker, 1870

-

NE

-

12

Spialia galba (Fabricius, 1793)

Indian Skipper

NE

-

13

Tagiades litigiosa Moeschler, 1878

Water Snow Flat

NE

-

14

Taractrocera ceramas (Hewitson, 1868)

Tamil Grass Dart

NE

-

15

Udaspes folus (Cramer, [1775]

Grass Demon

NE

-

 

Family Pieridae

 

 

 

16

Catopsilia pomona (Fabricius, 1775)

Common Emigrant

NE

-

17

Delias eucharis (Drury, 1773)

Common Jezebel

NE

-

18

Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Grass Yellow

NE

-

19

Leptosia nina (Fabricius, 1793)

Psyche

NE

-

20

Pareronia ceylanica (C. & R. Felder, 1865)

Dark Wanderer

NE

-

21

Pareronia valeria (Cramer, [1776])

Common Wanderer

NE

-

 

Family Riodinidae

 

 

 

22

Abisara bifasciata Moore, 1877

Two-spot Plum Judy

NE

-

 

Family Lycaenidae

 

 

 

23

Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield, [1828])

Common Hedge Blue

NE

-

24

Caleta decidia (Hewitson, 1876)

Angled Pierrot

NE

-

25

Chilades pandava (Horsfield, [1829])

Plains Cupid

NE

-

26

Jamides celeno (Cramer, [1775]

Common Cerulean

NE

-

27

Loxura atymnus (Stoll, 1780)

Yamfly

NE

-

28

Rathinda amor (Fabricius, 1775)

Monkey Puzzle

NE

-

 

Family Nymphalidae

 

 

 

29

Cirrochroa thais (Fabricius, 1787)

Tamil Yeoman

NE

-

30

Cupha erymanthis (Drury, [1773])

Rustic

NE

-

31

Cynitia lepidea (Butler, 1868)

Grey Count

NE

II

32

Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Plain Tiger

LC

-

33

Danaus genutia (Cramer, [1779])

Common Tiger

NE

-

34

Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer, [1777])

Autumn Leaf

NE

I

35

Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus, 1763)

Common Palmfly

NE

-

36

Euploea core (Cramer, [1780])

Common Crow

LC

-

37

Euthalia aconthea (Cramer, [1777])

Common Baron

NE

-

38

Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Great Eggfly

NE

-

39

Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764)

Danaid Eggfly

NE

I

40

Junonia almana (Linnaeus, 1758)

Peacock Pansy

LC

-

41

Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, 1763)

Grey Pansy

NE

-

42

Junonia iphita (Cramer, [1779])

Chocolate Pansy

NE

-

43

Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, 1758)

Lemon Pansy

NE

-

44

Melanitis leda (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Evening Brown

NE

-

45

Mycalesis perseus (Fabricius, 1775)

Common Bushbrown

NE

-

46

Neptis hylas (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Sailer

NE

-

47

Orsotriaena medus (Fabricius, 1775)

Nigger

NE

-

48

Parantica aglea (Stoll, [1782])

Glassy Tiger

NE

-

49

Parthenos sylvia (Cramer, 1775)

Clipper

NE

II

50

Tirumala limniace (Cramer, [1775])

Blue Tiger

NE

-

51

Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871

Common Fourring

NE

-

NE—Not Evaluated | LC—Least Concern.

 

Table 4 Checklist of amphibians.

 

 

Scientific name

Common name

IUCN Status

WPA Schedule

 

Order Anura

 

 

 

 

Family Dicroglossidae

 

 

 

1

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799)

Skittering Frog

LC

IV

2

Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834)

Indian Green Frog

LC

IV

3

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802)

Indian Bull Frog

LC

IV

4

Sphaerotheca sp. Günther, 1859

Burrowing Frog

-

-

 

Family Ranidae

 

 

 

5

Hydrophylax bahuvistara Padhye, Jadhav, Modak, Nameer & Dahanukar, 2015

Fungoid Frog

NE

-

 

Family Ranixalidae

 

 

 

6

Indirana sp.

 -

-

-

 

Family Rhacophoridae

 

 

 

7

Polypedates maculatus (Gray, 1830)

Common Indian Tree Frog

LC

-

NE—Not Evaluated | LC—Least Concern

 

 

Table 5. Checklist of reptiles.

 

 

Scientific name

Common name

IUCN Status

WPA Schedule

 

Order Sauria

 

 

 

 

Family Agamidae

 

 

 

1

Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802)

Garden Calotes

NE

-

2

Monilesaurus rouxii Duméril & Bibron, 1837

Forest Calotes

LC

-

 

Family Gekkonidae

 

 

 

3

Hemidactylus sp.

-

LC

-

4

Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril & Bibron, 1836

Asian House Gecko

LC

-

5

Hemidactylus prashadi Smith, 1935

Bombay Leaf-toed Gecko

LC

-

 

Family Scincidae

 

 

 

6

Eutropis allapallensis (Schmidt, 1926)

Allapalli Grass Skink

LC

-

 

Order Serpentes

 

 

 

 

Family Colubridae

 

 

 

7

Fowlea piscator (Schneider, 1799)

Checkered Keelback

NE

II

8

Oligodon taeniolatus (Jerdon, 1853)

Indian Streaked Kukri Snake

NE

IV

9

Ptyas mucosa (Linnaeus, 1758)

Indian Rat Snake

NE

II

 

Family Natracidae

 

 

 

10

Amphiesma stolatum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Buff-striped Keelback

NE

IV

NE—Not Evaluated | LC—Least Concern

 

 

Table 6. Checklist of birds.

 

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

IUCN Status

WPA Schedule

 

Family Accipitridae

 

 

 

1

Haliastur indus (Boddaert, 1783)

Brahminy Kite

LC

I

2

Hieraaetus pennatus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)

Booted Eagle

LC

I

3

Nisaetus cirrhatus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)

Changeable Hawk Eagle

LC

I

4

Pernis ptilorhynchus (Temminck, 1821)

Oriental Honey Buzzard

LC

I

5

Spilornis cheela (Latham, 1790)

Crested Serpent Eagle

LC

I

 

Family Aegithinidae

 

 

 

6

Aegithina tiphia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Iora

LC

IV

 

Family Alcedinidae

 

 

 

7

Alcedo atthis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Kingfisher

LC

IV

8

Ceryle rudis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pied Kingfisher

LC

IV

9

Ceyx erithaca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Oriental Dwarf-kingfisher

LC

IV

10

Halcyon smyrnensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

White-breasted Kingfisher

LC

IV

11

Pelargopsis capensis (Linnaeus, 1766)

Stork-billed Kingfisher

LC

IV

 

Family Anatidae

 

 

 

12

Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821)

Lesser Whistling-duck

LC

IV

 

Family Anhingidae

 

 

 

13

Anhinga melanogaster Pennant, 1769

Oriental Darter

NT

IV

 

Family Ardeidae

 

 

 

14

Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758

Great Egret

LC

IV

15

Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758

Grey Heron

LC

IV

16

Ardea intermedia Wagler, 1829

Intermediate Egret

LC

IV

17

Ardeola grayii (Sykes, 1832)

Indian Pond-heron

LC

IV

18

Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cattle Egret

LC

IV

 

Family Bucerotidae

 

 

 

19

Anthracoceros coronatus (Boddaert, 1783)

Malabar Pied Hornbill

NT

I

20

Buceros bicornis Linnaeus, 1758

Great Hornbill

VU

I

21

Ocyceros griseus (Latham, 1790)

Malabar Grey Hornbill

LC

-

 

Family Campephagidae

 

 

 

22

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Small Minivet

LC

IV

23

Pericrocotus flammeus (J.R. Forster, 1781)

Scarlet Minivet

LC

IV

 

Family Caprimulgidae

 

 

 

24

Caprimulgus atripennis Jerdon, 1845

Jerdon's Nightjar

LC

IV

 

Family Charadriidae

 

 

 

25

Vanellus indicus (Boddaert, 1783)

Red-wattled Lapwing

LC

IV

 

Family Chloropseidae

 

 

 

26

Chloropsis aurifrons (Temminck, 1829)

Golden-fronted Leafbird

LC

IV

 

Family Cisticolidae

 

 

 

27

Orthotomus sutorius (Pennant, 1769)

Common Tailorbird

LC

IV

28

Prinia hodgsonii Blyth, 1844

Grey-breasted Prinia

LC

IV

29

Prinia inornata Sykes, 1832

Plain Prinia

LC

IV

30

Prinia socialis Sykes, 1832

Ashy Prinia

LC

IV

 

Family Columbidae

 

 

 

31

Chalcophaps indica (Linnaeus, 1758)

Asian Emerald Dove

LC

IV

32

Columba livia J.F. Gmelin, 1789

Rock Pigeon

LC

IV

33

Spilopelia chinensis (Scopoli, 1786)

Spotted Dove

LC

IV

34

Treron affinis (Jerdon, 1840)

Grey-fronted Green-pigeon

LC

IV

 

Family Corvidae

 

 

 

35

Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827

Large-billed Crow

LC

IV

36

Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817

House Crow

LC

IV

 

Family Cuculidae