Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 July 2020 | 12(10): 16219–16229

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6025.12.10.16219-16229   

#6025 | Received 21 April 2020 | Final received 28 May 2020 | Finally accepted 18 July 2020

 

 

An updated checklist of mammals of Odisha, India

 

Subrat Debata ¹ & Himanshu Shekhar Palei ²

 

¹,² Aranya Foundation, Plot No-625/12, Mars Villa, Panchasakha Nagar, Dumduma, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751019, India.

¹ subrat.debata007@gmail.com, ² himanshu.palei@gmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

 

Editor: C. Srinivasulu, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.     Date of publication: 26 July 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Debata, S. & H.S. Palei (2020). An updated checklist of mammals of Odisha, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(10): 16219–16229. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6025.12.10.16219-16229

 

Copyright: © Debata & Palei 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: The study was funded by Aranya Foundation, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Subrat Debata is a wildlife researcher currently affiliated with Aranya Foundation an Odisha based Wildlife Conservation Organization. Himanshu Shekhar Palei is working on socioecology and human-wildlife conflict in eastern India, and interests include human-wildlife conflict, drivers of terrestrial mammal distribution and participatory approach to conservation. He is working with Aranya Foundation, Odisha.

 

Author contribution: Both authors contributed equally to the study.

 

Acknowledgements: We are thankful to: the Forest Department (Wildlife), Odisha, India for their kind cooperation and assistance in various field surveys; P.P. Mohapatra, A.K. Mishra, K.K. Swain, and S. Gantayat for their support during biodiversity surveys in different parts of Odisha; K.L. Purohit and A. Acharya for allowing us to use some of their photographs in this paper; the editor and anonymous reviewers for valuable discussions and comments that significantly improved the quality of the manuscript.

 

 

 

Abstract: Based on available literature and field surveys, an updated checklist of mammals of Odisha State is presented in this communication.  Their updated scientific binomen, IUCN status, Wildlife (Protection) Act schedules, CITES appendices, and last reported sighting of each species in Odisha are also given.  Odisha has around 102 species of mammals under 34 families and 12 orders, among which 27 species have been included under the different threatened categories of the IUCN Red List.

 

Keywords: CITES, eastern India, Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, IUCN.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Mammals are one of the most charismatic group and represented by 6,399 extant species under 1,314 genera, 167 families and 27 orders worldwide (Burgin et al. 2018). India is one of the 17 megadiverse countries in the world, and has over 427 extant mammalian species representing 199 genera, 52 families and 14 orders (Thong et al. 2018; Srinivasulu 2019).  India is classified into 10 different biogeographic zones (Rodger & Panwar 1988), and each of these zone has some uniqueness in their mammalian fauna (Menon 2014).

The state of Odisha (formerly Orissa) (17.816–22.566 0N and 81.483–87.483 0E; Figure 1) spread over an area of 155,707km², is situated along the east coast of India within the Deccan peninsular biogeographic zone (No. 6).  Because of its unique geographic location within the transitional zone of Chhotanagpur Plateau (No. 6B), Eastern Ghats Highlands (No. 6C), Lower Gangetic Plain (No. 7B), and the Eastern Coastal Plain’s (No. 8B) biogeographic provinces (Ray 2005), Odisha’s biodiversity represents a mixture of Indo-Malayan and Afro-Mediterranean elements (Das et al. 2015).  About 37% of the total geographic area of Odisha is under forest cover (Forest Survey of India 2019), which is mainly composed of tropical moist deciduous, tropical dry deciduous, tropical semi-evergreen, scrub and mangrove forests (Champion & Seth 1968).  The coastline of Odisha is about 480km long, characterized by sand dunes, tidal creeks, backwaters, brackish water lagoons, estuaries, mangroves, mudflats, and salt marshes.  There are 22 protected areas (19 wildlife sanctuaries (WS)), one national park and two tiger reserves in Odisha which covers about 4.73% of the state’s geographical area.

Documented information on mammalian fauna of Odisha dates back to the second half of 19th century.  It can be found referred in the first book on Indian mammals “The Mammals of India” by Jerdon (1867).  Subsequently, other important publications also dealt with mammals of Odisha (Ball 1877; Sterndale 1884; Blanford 1888–1891).  Although the Bombay Natural History Society’s systematic Mammal Survey of India, Burma and Ceylon was held during 1911–1930, it could not cover parts of then princely states of Odisha (Das et al. 1993). A few species of mammals, however, were collected near Chilika Lake and Koira area in Odisha and the results were reported in Annandale (1915), Thomas (1915), Wroughton (1915), and Hinton & Lindsay (1926a,b).  Subsequently, mammals of Odisha were also referred in several volumes of “Fauna of British India” (Pocock 1939, 1941) and “Fauna of India” (Ellerman 1961a,b).  Behura & Guru (1969) compiled a checklist of mammals of Odisha and reported 34 species.  During 1970–1983, the Zoological Survey of India made a series of mammalian surveys throughout Odisha, the results of which comprising 76 species were then reported in the state fauna series (Das et al. 1993).  Mishra et al. (1996) also made a comprehensive checklist of wildlife of Odisha and reported 85 species of mammals within the political boundary of the state.

During the last two decades, there have been increasing efforts to document mammals of Odisha.  These studies were focused on several protected areas, important hill ranges and sacred groves.  Tiwari et al. (2002) first compiled 37 species of mammals from Chandaka-Dampara WS.  Ramakrishna et al. (2006) reported 55 species of mammals from Similipal Biosphere Reserve encompassing the Similipal WS and Similipal Tiger Reserve.  Mohapatra et al. (2009, 2012, 2013) reported 36 species of mammals from different hill forests of southern Odisha, 43 species from Kotgarh WS, and 47 species from several sacred groves in Sundargarh District.  Sahu et al. (2012, 2014) reported 36 species of mammals from Hadagarh WS, and 43 species of mammals from Kuldiha WS.  Murmu et al. (2013a,b) also reported 23 species of mammals of Kuldiha WS, and 42 species of mammals from Hadagarh WS.  Khan et al. (2015) reported 18 species of cetaceans from Odisha.  Debata et al. (2016) reported 25 species of bats within the geographic limits of Odisha.  Besides these, Venkatraman et al. (2016) reported 24 species of mammals from Bhitarkanika mangroves.  Very recently, Debata & Swain (2020) surveyed the mammalian fauna of an urban-influenced zone of Chandaka-Dampara WS using camera traps and reported 14 species of mammals.  Some of the recent additions to mammalian fauna of Odisha are Bryde’s Whale Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879 (John et al. 2012), Lesser False Vampire Bat Megaderma spasma Linnaeus, 1758 (Debata et al. 2013), Asian Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinereous (Illiger, 1815) (Mohapatra et al. 2014), Cantor’s Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros galeritus Cantor, 1846 (Debata et al. 2015), Dwarf Sperm Whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866), Bottle-nosed Dolphin Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821, Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin Sousa plumbea (Cuvier, 1829), and Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846) (Khan et al. 2015).  As there is no recent updated information on mammals of Odisha, preparation of a checklist with updates was, thus, considered necessary for further conservation management of mammals of the state.

 

METHODS

 

The checklist given in this communication is based on a thorough review of available literature, books, and technical reports on mammals of Odisha along with author’s field surveys.  While preparing the checklist, we followed IUCN (2020) for the scientific and common names of the species.  The conservation status of the species provided in the checklist is based on the IUCN Red List, Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

A total of 102 species of mammals under 34 families and 12 orders are listed in the current checklist of Odisha (Table 1).  Among all, the order Chiroptera is the largest group of mammals with 25 species (24.5%) followed by Carnivora (23 species; 22.6%), Cetacea (18 species; 17.6%), Rodentia (15 species; 14.7%), and Artiodactyla (12 species; 11.8%) (Figure 2).  The rest of the groups represented less than 10% of the total mammalian diversity (Figure 2).  As many as 22 species (21.6%) are threatened (nine Endangered and 13 Vulnerable), five (4.9%) are Near Threatened, 72 (70.6%) are Least Concern, and three (2.9%) are Data Deficient species (IUCN 2020).   

 

Mammals excluded from the Odisha list

We have excluded a few species from the checklist because they could be locally extirpated, inaccurately mentioned in the literature, or have not been formally recognized as a separate species.  A detailed description on their distribution in Odisha is summarized below in support of their exclusion from this list.

Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (Griffith, 1821): Cheetah was stated to be present in Odisha based on various sighting records in Sambalpur District during 1880, Sundargarh District during 1910, Angul District during 1932 (Divyabhanusingh & Kazmi 2019), near Odisha-Andhra Pradesh border during 1952 (Mukherjee 1982) and in Dhenkanal District during 1960 (Behura & Guru 1969).  Since then there is no report of sighting of Cheetah in Odisha and it is already considered extinct in India.  We, therefore, excluded the species from the current checklist.

Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812): Bonnet Macaque was reported to occur only in Malkangiri District of southern Odisha (Mishra et al. 1996).  Acharjyo (2001), however, raised doubt on its occurrence in Odisha.  Moreover, Das et al. (1993) did not mention its occurrence in Odisha.  Recently, Kumar et al. (2011) mapped the distribution of Bonnet Macaque in India, but did not report any troops from Odisha.  We, therefore, excluded this species from Odisha checklist.

Caracal Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776): Based on a newspaper report published in The Statesman, Calcutta on 10 March 1962, Behura & Guru (1969) reported the presence of Caracal in Mayurbhanj District, northern Odisha.  Apart from this, there is no further valid evidence of its occurrence in the state so far.  The known eastern most range of this species in India extends up to Madhav National Park in Madhya Pradesh (Kushwaha & Kumar 1999).  The species, therefore, might have been inaccurately mentioned or might have become locally extirpated in Odisha.

Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata (Martin, 1836): There is a mention that two young individuals (possibly kittens) of Marbled Cat captured in Phulbani District and displayed in the first wildlife exhibition held at Bhubaneswar in 1956 (Mishra et al. 1996).  Besides that there is no further valid evidence on its occurrence in Odisha.  As Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) is a very common and widely distributed species in the forests of Odisha (Mishra et al. 1996), the captured kittens were probably misidentified Leopard Cats.  The Marbled Cat is found in the mountain region of Himalaya, Himalayan foothills, and northeastern states in India (Ross et al. 2016).  We, therefore, ruled out the presence of Marbled Cat in Odisha, and exclude it from the updated checklist.

Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa (Griffith, 1821):  There is a mention on occurrence of Clouded Leopard from Similipal WS by Ramakrishna et al. (2006).  The authors mentioned its distribution in Chahala, Kabatghai, and Talbandh areas in Similipal with no valid evidence.  In India, this species is confined to the northeastern region (Menon 2014) and their occurrence in Odisha is, therefore, questionable.  In fact, intensive camera trap monitoring in Similipal failed to report this species (Palei et al. 2016).  Hence, we excluded it from the updated checklist.

Greater Hog Badger Arctonyx collaris F.G. Cuvier, 1825: Ramakrishna et al. (2006) reported this species from Jamuani area in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha.  In India, Hog Badger is reported from West Bengal, Sikkim, and northeastern region of India (Menon 2014).  A recent camera trap monitoring in Similipal Tiger Reserve did not report this species (Palei et al. 2016). Distribution of Hog Badger in Odisha is, therefore, ruled out.

White-banded Palm Civet Paradoxurus jorandensis:  Ali et al. (1988) described a new species of palm civet as White-banded Palm Civet from Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha referring to a broad white band encircling the abdomen of an animal.  This was later reported to be based on an individual specimen of Common Palm Civet which was partially albinistic (Das et al. 1993).  Pocock (1933) also earlier mentioned the polymorphism in both colour and pattern in some species of Viveridae.  In fact, there is photographic evidence on both normal and partially albinistic pups in a litter of Common Palm Civet (Image 1) from Baripada, Mayurbhanj District near Similipal Tiger Reserve.

Although 102 species of mammals have been included in the checklist, current status of certain species within the political boundary of Odisha needs to be further verified.  Some of the most important among them are the Dugong Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776), Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee (Kerr, 1792), Swamp Deer Rucervus duvaucelii (G. Cuvier, 1823), and Indian Gazelle Gazella bennettii (Sykes, 1831).  Dugong was reported to occur in Odisha based on a single sighting record during 1902 from Chilika Lake (Mishra et al. 1996; Dash 2010).  Since then there has been no record of its occurrence in Odisha.  There are reports that during 1969 two herds of Wild Buffalo existed in some pockets of Kalahandi and Koraput districts (Behura & Guru 1969).  Mishra et al. (1996) also mentioned about their occurrence in Sunabeda WS in Odisha and the adjoining Udanti WS in Chhattisgarh.  Recently, on June 2011 an adult bull strayed into human habitation in Kundura area of Koraput District (Image 2).  So, there are possibilities that a small population may still survive in some remote areas in western Odisha.  Currently, Swamp Deer are reported to be confined in five isolated pockets in central, northern and northeastern India (Menon 2014).  Earlier, small populations of Swamp Deer were also known to occur in Sunabeda WS in the undivided Kalahandi District and Padmapur forests of Sambalpur District; the Sunabeda population was also believed to migrate between the Sunabeda plateau and forests of the then undivided state of Madhya Pradesh (Mishra et al. 1996).  In fact, there is ample evidence that Swamp Deer were present in Sunabeda WS (Image 3).  The Indian Gazelle  is distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions of western and central India bordering the western Odisha region (Menon 2014).  Sterndale (1884) earlier reported its occurrence along the Mahanadi Valley in Odisha.  Although not very recently, Kotwal (1997) also reported sighting of 35 Indian Gazelles in Sunabeda WS.  Based on a recent informal discussion with local residents of Sunabeda WS by the first author during December 2018, it is revealed that the Wild Buffalo, Swamp Deer, and Indian Gazelle were very common in Sunabeda during the mid-20th century, however, habitat encroachment and hunting have resulted in sharp decline in these animals.  As per the views of the locals, although all these animals have become extremely rare in Sunabeda, they are sighted occasionally.  Due to frequent Maoist activities, however, regular wildlife monitoring activities in Sunabeda WS have ceased.  The proposed Sunabeda Tiger Reserve with an area of 956.17km² encompassing the Sunabeda WS (591.75km²) and adjoining Patdhara forest block (364.42km²), is one of the important wildlife habitat adjoining the central Indian landscape.  Therefore, targeted and species-specific long term surveys along the western Odisha region in general and proposed Sunabeda Tiger Reserve in particular should be the utmost priority to assertion the current status of the aforementioned species in Odisha.

 

 

Table 1. Checklist of mammals of Odisha, India. IUCN Status: EN—Endangered, VU—Vulnerable, NT—Near Threatened, LC—Least Concern, DD—Data Deficient.

 

 

Scientific name

Common name

IUCN status

WPA, 1972 schedule

CITES appendix

Latest source

 

A. ORDER PROBOSCIDEA

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. Family Elephantidae (Elephants)

 

 

 

 

 

1

Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758

Asian Elephant

EN

I

I

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

B. ORDER SIRENIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

II. Dugongidae (Dugongs)

 

 

 

 

 

2

Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776)

Dugong

VU

I

I

Mishra et al. (1996)

 

C. ORDER SCANDENTIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

III. Family Tupaiidae (Treeshrews)

 

 

 

 

 

3

Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse, 1850)

Madras Treeshrew

LC

Not listed

II

Sahu et al. (2014)

 

 D. ORDER PRIMATES

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. Family Cercopithecidae (Old world monkeys)

 

 

 

 

 

4

Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780)

Rhesus Macaque

LC

II

II

Debata & Swain (2020)

5

Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne, 1797)

Northern Plains Gray Langur

LC

II

I

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

E. ORDER RODENTIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

V. Family Sciuridae (Squirrels)

 

 

 

 

 

6

Funambulus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1766)

Three-striped Palm Squirrel

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

7

Funambulus pennantii Wroughton, 1905

Northern Palm Squirrel

LC

IV

Not listed

Murmu et al. (2013a, b)

8

Petaurista philippensis (Elliot, 1839)

Indian Giant Flying Squirrel

LC

II

Not listed

Murmu et al. (2013b)

9

Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777)

Indian Giant Squirrel

LC

II

II

Palei et al. (2017)

 

VI. Family Hystricidae (Porcupines)

 

 

 

 

 

10

Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792

Indian Crested Porcupine

LC

IV

Not listed

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

VII. Family Muridae (Rats and Mice)

 

 

 

 

 

11

Bandicota bengalensis (Gray, 1835)

Lesser Bandicoot Rat

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

12

Bandicota indica (Bechstein, 1800)

Greater Bandicoot Rat

LC

V

Not listed

Mohapatra et al. (2013)

13

Golunda ellioti Gray, 1837

Indian Bush-rat

LC

V

Not listed

Tiwari et al. (2002)

14

Madromys blanfordi (Thomas, 1881)

White-tailed Wood Rat

LC

V

Not listed

Mohapatra et al. (2013)

15

Mus booduga (Gray, 1837)

Common Indian Field Mouse

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

16

Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758

House Mouse

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

17

Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769)

Brown Rat

LC

V

Not listed

Mishra et al. (1996)

18

Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)

House Rat

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

19

Tatera indica (Hardwicke, 1807)

Indian Gerbil

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

20

Vandeleuria oleracea (Bennett, 1832)

Asiatic Long-tailed Climbing Mouse

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

 

F. ORDER LAGOMORPHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

VII. Family Leporidae (Hares)

 

 

 

 

 

21

Lepus nigricollis F. Cuvier, 1823

Black-naped Hare

LC

IV

Not listed

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

G. ORDER SORICOMORPHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

VIII. Family Soricidae (Shrews)

 

 

 

 

 

22

Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822)

Savi’s Pygmy Shrew

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

23

Suncus murinus Linnaeus, 1766

House Shrew

LC

V

Not listed

Sahu et al. (2014)

 

H. ORDER CHIROPTERA

 

 

 

 

 

 

IX. Family Pteropodidae (Fruit Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

24

Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl, 1797)

Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat

LC

V

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

25

Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich, 1782)

Indian Flying Fox

LC

V

II

Debata et al. (2016)

26

Rousettus leschenaultii (Desmarest, 1820)

Leschenault’s Rousette

LC

V

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

X. Family Rhinolophidae (Horseshoe Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

27

Rhinolophus lepidus Blyth, 1844

Blyth’s Horseshoe Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

28

Rhinolophus rouxii Temminck, 1835

Rufous Horseshoe Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

XI. Family Hipposideridae (Roundleaf Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

29

Hipposideros ater Templeton, 1848

Dusky Roundleaf Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

30

Hipposideros fulvus Gray, 1838

Fulvus Roundleaf Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

31

Hipposideros galeritus Cantor, 1846

Cantor’s Roundleaf Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

32

Hipposideros speoris (Schneider, 1800)

Schneider’s Roundleaf Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

33

Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, 1850

Kelaart’s Roundleaf Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

XII. Family Megadermatidae (False Vampire Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

34

Megaderma lyra E. Geoffroy, 1810

Greater False Vampire Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

35

Megaderma spasma (Linnaeus, 1758)

Lesser False Vampire Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

XIII. Family Rhinopomatidae (Mouse-tailed Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

36

Rhinopoma hardwickii Gray, 1831

Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

37

Rhinopoma microphyllum (Brünnich, 1792)

Greater Mouse-tailed Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

XIV. Family Emballonuridae (Sheath-tailed Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

38

Saccolaimus saccolaimus (Temminck, 1838)

Pouch-bearing Tomb Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

39

Taphozous longimanus Hardwicke, 1825

Long-winged Tomb Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

40

Taphozous melanopogon Temminck, 1841

Black-bearded Tomb Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

XV. Family Vespertilionidae (Evening Bats)

 

 

 

 

 

41

Hesperoptenus tickelli (Blyth, 1851)

Tickell’s Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

42

Kerivoula picta (Pallas, 1767)

Painted Woolly Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

43

Pipistrellus ceylonicus (Kelaart, 1852 )

Kelaart’s Pipistrelle

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

44

Pipistrellus coromandra (Gray, 1838 )

Indian Pipistrelle

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

45

Pipistrellus tenuis (Temminck, 1840)

Least Pipistrelle

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

46

Scotophilus heathii (Horsfield, 1831 )

Greater Asiatic Yellow House Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

47

Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, 1821

Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

48

Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875

Dormer’s Pipistrelle

LC

Not listed

Not listed

Debata et al. (2016)

 

I. ORDER PHOLIDOTA

 

 

 

 

 

 

XVI. Family Manidae (Pangolins)

 

 

 

 

 

49

Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy, 1803

Indian Pangolin

EN

I

II

Anonymous (2019)

 

J. ORDER CARNIVORA

 

 

 

 

 

 

XVII. Family Canidae (Dogs)

 

 

 

 

 

50

Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758

Golden Jackal

LC

II

III

Debata & Swain (2020)

51

Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758

Grey Wolf

LC

I

I*

Palei et al. (2019)

52

Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811)

Dhole

EN

II

II

Debata & Swain (2018)

53

Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw, 1800)

Bengal Fox

LC

II

III

Anonymous (2018)

 

XVIII. Family Felidae (Cats)

 

 

 

 

 

54

Felis chaus Schreber, 1777

Jungle Cat

LC

II

II

Debata & Swain (2020)

55

Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792)

Leopard Cat

LC

I

I

Palei et al. (2016)

56

Prionailurus rubiginosus (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831)

Rusty-Spotted Cat

NT

I

I

Palei et al. (2019)

57

Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833)

Fishing Cat

VU

I

II

Palei et al. (2018)

58

Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Leopard

VU

I

I

Anonymous (2019)

59

Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tiger

EN

I

I

Anonymous (2019)

 

XIX. Family Hyaenidae (Hyaenas)

 

 

 

 

 

60

Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758)

Striped Hyaena

NT

III

III

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

XX. Family Ursidae (Bears)

 

 

 

 

 

61

Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791)

Sloth Bear

VU

I

I

Anonymous (2019)

 

XXI. Family Mustelidae (Otters and Honey Badger)

 

 

 

 

 

62

Aonyx cinerea (Illiger, 1815)

Asian Small-clawed Otter

VU

I

II

Mohapatra et al. (2014)

63

Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758)

European Otter

NT

I

I

Adhya (2020)

64

Lutrogale perspicillata (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826)

Smooth-coated Otter

VU

II

II

Anonymous (2019)

65

Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776)

Honey Badger

LC

I

III

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

XXII.Family Viverridae (Civets and Palm Civets)

 

 

 

 

 

66

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Pallas, 1777)

Common Palm Civet

LC

II

III

Debata & Swain (2020)

67

Viverra zibetha Linnaeus, 1758

Large Indian Civet

LC

II

III

Mohapatra & Palei (2014)

68

Viverricula indica (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803)

Small Indian Civet

LC

II

III

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

XXIII. Family Herpestidae (Mongooses)

 

 

 

 

 

69

Herpestes auropunctatus (Hodgson, 1836)

Small Indian Mongoose

LC

II

III

Debata & Swain (2018)

70

Herpestes  edwardsii (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818)

Indian Grey Mongoose

LC

II

III

Debata & Swain (2020)

71

Herpestes smithii Gray, 1837

Ruddy Mongoose

LC

II

III

Sahu et al. (2012)

72

Herpestes vitticollis Bennett, 1835

Striped-necked Mongoose

LC

II

III

Nayak et al. (2014)

 

K. ORDER ARTIODACTYLA

 

 

 

 

 

 

XXIV. Family Bovidae (Cattle)

 

 

 

 

 

73

Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blackbuck

LC

I

III

Anonymous (2019)

74

Bos gaurus C.H. Smith, 1827

Gaur

VU

I

I

Anonymous (2019)

75

Boselaphus tragocamelus (Pallas, 1766)

Nilgai

LC

III

III

Anonymous (2019)

76

Bubalus arnee (Kerr, 1792)

Wild Water Buffalo

EN

I

III

Mishra et al. (1996)

77

Gazella bennettii (Sykes, 1831)

Indian Gazelle

LC

I

III

Kotwal (1997)

78

Tetracerus quadricornis (de Blainville, 1816)

Four-horned Antelope

VU

I

III

Anonymous (2019)

 

XXV. Family Cervidae (Deers)

 

 

 

 

 

79

Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)

Spotted Deer

LC

III

Not listed

Debata & Swain (2020)

80

Muntiacus vaginalis (Boddaert, 1785)

Northern Red Muntjac

LC

III

Not listed

Anonymous (2019)

81

Rucervus duvaucelii (G. Cuvier, 1823)

Swamp Deer

VU

I

I

Mishra et al. (1996)

82

Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792)

Sambar

VU

III

Not listed

Palei et al. (2019)

 

XXVI. Family Tragulidae (Mouse Deer)

 

 

 

 

 

83

Moschiola indica (Gray, 1852)

Indian Spotted Chevrotain

LC

I

Not listed

Anonymous (2019)

 

XXVII. Family Suidae (Wild Pigs)

 

 

 

 

 

84

Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758

Wild Boar

LC

III

Not listed

Debata & Swain (2020)

 

L. ORDER CETACEA

 

 

 

 

 

 

XXVIII. Family Balaenoptridae (Rorquals)

 

 

 

 

 

85

Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879

Bryde's Whale

LC

I

I

Khan et al. (2015)

86

Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804

Common Minke Whale

LC

I

I

Khan et al. (2015)

87

Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828

Sei Whale

EN

I

I

Khan et al. (2015)

 

XXIX. Family Physeteridae (Sperm Whales)

 

 

 

 

 

88

Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758

Sperm Whale

VU

I

I

Khan et al. (2015)

 

XXX. Family Kogiidae (Pygmy Sperm Whales)

 

 

 

 

 

89

Kogia sima (Owen, 1866)

Dwarf Sperm Whale

DD

I

II

Khan et al. (2015)

 

XXXI.  Family Delphinidae (Marine Dolphins)

 

 

 

 

 

90

Delphinus capensis Gray, 1828

Long-beaked Common Dolphin

DD

II

II

Khan et al. (2015)

91

Grampus griseus (G.Cuvier, 1812)

Risso's Dolphin

LC

I

II

Khan et al. (2015)

92

Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Gray, 1866)

Irrawady Dolphin

EN

I

I

Anonymous (2018)

93

Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846)

False Killer Whale

NT

II

II

Khan et al. (2015)

94

Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765)

Indopacific Humpback Dolphin

VU

II

II

Anonymous (2018)

95

Sousa plumbea (Cuvier, 1828)

Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin

EN

II

I

Anonymous (2018)

96

Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846)

Pantropical Spotted Dolphin

LC

II

II

Anonymous (2018)

97

Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833)

Striped Dolphin

LC

II

II

Khan et al. (2015)

98

Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828).

Spinner Dolphin

DD

II

II

Khan et al. (2015)

99

Tursiops aduncus (Ehrenberg, 1833)

Indopacific Bottle-nosed Dolphin

NT

Not listed

II

Khan et al. (2015)

100

Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821

Bottle-nosed Dolphin

LC

II

II

Khan et al. (2015)

 

XXXII. Family Platanistidae (River Dolphins)

 

 

 

 

 

101

Platanista gangetica (Roxburgh, 1801)

Ganges Dolphin

EN

I

I

Anonymous (2018)

 

XXXIII. Family Phocoenidae (Porpoises)

 

 

 

 

 

102

Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier, 1829)

Finless Porpoise

VU

I

II

Anonymous (2018)

 

* Only the populations of India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan.

 

 

For figures & images - - click here

 

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