Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 March 2021 | 13(3): 17972–17983

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5859.13.3.17972-17983

#5859 | Received 11 March 2020 | Final received 04 July 2020 | Finally accepted 23 February 2021

 

 

Distribution and diversity of climbing species in Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh, India

 

Soyala Kashung 1, Padma Raj Gajurel 2  & Binay Singh 3

 

1–3 Forest Systematic and Horticulture Laboratory, Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Sciences and Technology, Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh 791109, India.

1 ksoyala@gmail.com, 2 prgajurel@gmail.com (corresponding author), 3 bsingh.nird@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: Anonymity requested.   Date of publication: 26 March 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Kashung, S., P.R. Gajurel & B. Singh (2021). Distribution and diversity of climbing species in Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(3): 17972–17983. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5859.13.3.17972-17983

 

Copyright: © Kashung et al. 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Partly funded by Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt. of India, through National Fellowship for ST for the 1st author.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Soyala Kashung is a PhD scholar in the Department of Forestry at North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST) and working in plant diversity and taxonomy. Dr. Padma Raj Gajurel is working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Forestry at NERIST and working extensively in plant diversity, taxonomy, ethnobotany and medicinal plant.  Binay Singh is working as Professor in the Department of Forestry at NERIST and working on forest resources utilization, ethnobotany and horticulture.

 

Author contribution: PRG and BS designed the objectives and plan of work. SK carried out the fieldwork, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. PRG and BS helped in data analysis, interpretation and manuscript correction.

 

Acknowledgements: We are thankful to the local people of the study area for their cooperation in documentation of the climber plants of the study area.  We thank the forest officials and staffs of various forest divisions for their help during the field work.  We thank the scientist and officials of Botanical Survey of India, Shillong (ASSAM) and Arunachal Field Station, Itanagar (ARUN) for herbarium facilities.  We also express gratitude to the head of department, Forestry and Director, NERIST, for providing all necessary facilities.

 

 

 

Abstract: An investigation on the taxonomic diversity of climbing plants occurring in Papum Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India was conducted.  A total of 187 species distributed over 55 families and 117 genera were collected and identified from the various forest areas of the district.  Apart from one gymnosperm and five pteridophytes, all species belong to the angiosperm group.  Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Convolvulaceae, Vitaceae, and Apocynaceae were found to be the most dominant.  Piper, Dioscorea, Ipomoea, and Rubus were dominant at the genus level.  The study also revealed that majority of the climbers adopted twining mechanisms (43.85%) to ascend their host.  It  was found that a majority of the species were distributed below 500m with a decrease in diversity with altitudinal increment.  The diversity of species above 1,500m was very limited where only 23 species were reported.  Habitat degradation because of rapid developmental activities with limitation of the supporting tree species was found to be a serious threat to climbing plants.

 

Keywords: Climbing mechanism, diversity elevation zones, habitats, herbaceous vine, liana, northeastern India.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Around 50% of the families of vascular plants comprise climbing plants (Putz 1984).  They occur in all forest ecosystems with its occurrence highest in tropical and sub-tropical forests (Quigley & Platt 2003; Bongers et al. 2005).  The presence of over 8,000 climbing species under 130 families was predicted by Gentry (1991).  Globally, studies on climbing species were focused primarily on lianas occurring in tropical forest communities by most researchers (Schnitzer et al. 2000; Ibarra-Manriquez & Martinez-Ramos 2002; Reddy & Parthasarathy 2003; Yuan et al. 2009; Muthumperumal 2011; Naidu et al. 2014).  Despite the ecological and economic importance, the works on herbaceous vines are very limited and carried out only by a few researchers (Gallagher et al. 2011; Kumar et al. 2013; Suthari et al. 2014; Singh et al. 2015).  Study on the diversity and distribution of climbing plants is still scanty in the Indian scenario when compared to their study worldwide.  Despite having large forest covers under tropical and subtropical vegetation and rich diversity and density of the climbers, sufficient attention has not been paid to this group in India.  Only a few studies have been carried out in the country in some selected sites particularly in the Eastern and Western Ghats, coastal and inland tropical dry evergreen forest and eastern Himalaya (Muthuramkumar & Parthasarathy 2000; Chittibabu & Parthasarathy 2001; Reddy & Parthasarathy 2003; Muthumperumal & Parthasarathy 2009; Chettri et al. 2010; Barik et al. 2015; Singh et al. 2015; Dvivedi et al. 2016).  Majority of the work on climbing plants in India were reported from the Eastern and Western Ghats including some specific parts of southern states like Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Andhra Pradesh, and Andaman.  Likewise, from the Himalayan and adjacent parts a few studies are available from Allahabad, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, and Tripura (Chettri et al. 2010; Kumar et al. 2013; Darlong & Bhattacharyya 2014; Barik et al. 2015; Singh et al. 2015; Dvivedi et al. 2016).

The state of Arunachal Pradesh by virtue of its location in the eastern Himalayan range and its distinct phytogeographical unit is a confluence point of many floristic elements harboring a unique composition of plant species.  The state is recognized as one among the 200 globally important ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein 1998).  The state is estimated to harbor at least 5,000 flowering plants belonging to 192 families and 1,295 genera thereby catering to more than 26% of Indian flora (Singh & Dash 2016).  Many economically and ecologically important vines and lianas are distributed in the region including some rare and endemic species.  Papum Pare District being the capital city located in the district, many forest areas are degrading at a faster rate for various developmental activities.  Many of the climbers having surface rooting systems are also greatly affected due to the prolonged drought which sometimes leads to drying and death of the population of many species.  Unless specific studies are designed and undertaken to explore the climbing species of the region, it could be difficult to assess the real diversity and distribution of these valuable components of the ecosystem.

The present study provides an account of the diversity and distribution of climbing plants of Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

 

Study site

The study is confined to the Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh, India, where the capital of the state, Itanagar, is located.  The district covers a geographical area of 3,462km2 and is located between 26.936–27.595 0N and 93.212–94.225 0E.  It is bounded in the north by Lower Subansiri District, west by East Kameng District, east by West Siang District, and south by North Lakhimpur District of Assam (Figure 1).  As the state is uniquely situated in the transition zone between the Himalayan and Indo-Burmese regions, a major part of the Papum Pare District is covered by thick forest with tropical, sub-tropical, and humid type of vegetation.  Because of its geographical location, the district possesses a phenomenal range of biological diversity in flora and fauna and is also home to numerous tribal populations.  The district is dominantly inhabited by the Nyishi tribe.

 

Data collection

The present study is the outcome of extensive periodical field surveys undertaken from 2015 to 2019 covering all the four subdivisions of the district, viz.: Balijan, Doimukh, Kimin, and Sagalee.  For a better understanding of the extent of distribution of the climbing plant species of the region, the study area was subdivided based on the altitudinal range as below 500m, 500–1,000 m, 1,000–1,500 m, and above 1,500m.  The presence of the climbing plants in each zone was then recorded through direct visual observation.  The fieldwork comprises plant collection, taxonomic & ecological investigation including studies on their distribution, and climbing mechanisms.  The collected species were identified using various taxonomic literature (Hooker 1872–1897; Kanjilal et al. 1934–1940; Hajra et al. 1996; Giri et al. 2008–2009) and consultation with regional herbaria (ASSAM, ARUN).  All the specimens were processed into mounted herbarium sheets as per the conventional methods of drying, poisoning, mounting, and labelling following Jain & Rao (1977).  The processed herbarium specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

 

 

Results and Discussion

 

The present study revealed the rich diversity of climbing plants in Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh.  The exploration and field survey resulted in the documentation of 187 species belonging to 55 families and 117 genera distributed in the different forest areas of the district.  Habit-wise analysis revealed that herbaceous vine constitutes the major group with 105 species followed by liana with 82 species.  Majority of the species belong to Dicotyledons which comprises 150 species forming 82.87% while monocotyledon comprises 31 species forming 17.13% of the species recorded during the study.  Gymnosperm is represented by only one species, Gnetum montanum, while pteridophyte is represented by five species.  Among the families, Fabaceae is the most dominant with 21 species followed by Cucurbitaceae with 13 species, Convolvulaceae and Vitaceae with 12 species each, Apocynaceae with 11 species, and Araceae with 10 species.  The 10 dominant families in the present study are presented in Figure 2.  Around 50% of the families like Actinidiaceae, Basellaceae, Berberidaceae, Dilleniaceae, Gentianaceae, Icacinaceae, Primulaceae, Schisandraceae, Stemonaceae, Urticaceae are represented by single species each.  The families like Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Vitaceae are also recorded as the dominant one in the flora of the state as well as other parts of the country (Chauhan et al. 1996; Hajra et al. 1996; Giri et al. 2008–2009; Muthumperumal & Parthasarathy 2009; Sarvalingam & Rajendran 2015).  In terms of genera, Piper ranks the highest with nine species followed by Dioscorea (eight species), Ipomoea & Rubus (seven species each), Smilax (six species), and Cayratia (five species).  The study by Gajurel et al. (2008) on the genus Piper from the state also indicated the richness of the species diversity in this genera.

The forests in the study sites are mainly tropical and subtropical with an intricate mosaic of habitats including open forests, dense forests, wasteland areas, riverine areas, and disturbed sites.  The analysis of the habitat-wise distribution of species revealed a significant difference among the different habitats.  The highest number of species was recorded from forest areas along the roadside and forest edges with 97 and 84 species, respectively.  While a lesser number of species was recorded from inside the undisturbed dense forest (23 species) and disturbed forest (33 species) areas (Figure 3).

The distribution of the climbing species was found to be concentrated mainly in the lowest elevation zone of ≤500m with 136 species followed by 102 species in 500–1,000 m.  The least distribution was observed in 1,000–1,500 m and above 1,500m with 51 and 23 species, respectively.  The present observation of reduction in the number of species with increasing altitude is also in accordance with many workers who have also documented such findings worldwide (Schnitzer & Bongers 2002; Parthasarathy et al. 2004; Zhu 2008; Homeier et al. 2010).  Along with the general distribution of the species, exclusivity of species distribution in different elevation zones was also observed.  The exclusivity of the species distribution in ≤ 500m and > 1,500m zones was found higher with 44.85 % and 21.74%, respectively.  While the exclusivity in the two intermediate zones of 500–1,000 m and 1,000–1,500 m was found comparatively less.  Altogether, 99 species were found commonly distributed in more than one altitudinal range while the remaining  88 species were found restricted to a certain altitude only, including species like Anredera cordifolia, Ampelocissus barbata, Anamirta cocculus, Cryptolepis sinensis, Dalhousiea bracteata, Decalepis khasiana, Embelia floribunda, Heterosmilax japonica, Lygodium flexuosum, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Myxopyrum smilacifolium, Natsiatum herpeticum, and Piper haridasanii.  The total species representation in the different elevation zones with its exclusive representation is provided in Figure 4 for easier observation and detection.

Species like Argyreia nervosa, Caesalpinia cucullata, Cissampelos pareira, Cuscuta reflexa, Hedyotis scandens, Mikania micrantha, Paederia foetida, and Thunbergia grandiflora were found most abundantly distributed in the study site.  The invasive species like Mikania micrantha, Thunbergia grandiflora, and Cuscuta reflexa were found diversely distributed throughout the entire study area creating ecological and forest regeneration disturbances.  Some species like Ipomoea quamoclit, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Pueraria montana var. lobata although known to be highly invasive in other parts of the country (Reddy et al. 2008) were found restricted to only a few areas of the study site.  The rare climbing species of the study area include Abrus pulchellus, Anredera cordifolia, Anamirta cocculus, Argyreia capitiformis, Cryptolepis sinensis, Decalepis khasiana, Hodgsonia heterocilita, and Myxopyrum smilacifolium.

The recorded plants were grouped into five types based on their climbing mechanisms used into twiner, scrambler (armed), rambler (unarmed), tendril climber, and root climber.  Stem twining climber represents the highest group with 82 species (43.85 %) followed by tendril climber 41 species (21.93 %), root climber 28 species (14.97 %), and least representation by scrambler & rambler with 18 species each (9.63 %) (Figure 5).  Higher diversity in the twining mechanism was also elucidated by various workers (Chittibabu & Parthasarathy 2001; Addo-Fordjour et al. 2008).  One of the least diverse climbing mechanisms in the present study was climbing through hook/prickles in the scrambler group.  Chittibabu & Parthasarathy (2001), however, in their work conducted in the tropical evergreen forest of Eastern Ghats had recorded a higher proportion of scrambler 23.1% diversity as compared to the tendril (19.2 %) and root climbers (3.85 %).

The list of all the recorded species with their family, habit & climbing mechanisms, threat status, and elevation ranges of distribution are presented alphabetically in Table 1.

 

 

Conclusion

 

The present study provides an account of the rich floristic diversity of the climbing plant of Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh, which contributes to the overall biodiversity of the forests.  Presently, many forest areas of the district are subjected to various anthropogenic pressures due to various developmental activities and the forest areas are degrading at a faster rate.  It was also noticed that the important climbers of the forests of the region like Piper spp., Dioscorea spp., Cryptolepis sinensis, Hemidesmus indicus, Hodgsonia heteroclita, Entada phaseoloides, and Cayratia pedata are becoming rare day by day.  Therefore, there is a need to create awareness among the local people for the conservation of these plants to ensure their continued existence in the long run.

 

 

Table 1. List of climbing plant species of Papum Pare District.

 

Botanical name

Voucher no.

Family

Habit

Habitat

Climbing mode

Elevation zone (m)

1

Abrus precatorius L.

Soyala K 152

Fabaceae

Liana

AR

Twiner

< 500

2

Abrus pulchellus Thwaites

Soyala K 121

Fabaceae

Liana

FE

Twiner

< 500

3

Acacia caesia (L.) Willd.

Soyala K 149

Fabaceae

Liana

R,DIF

Scrambler

< 500

4

Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.

Soyala K 169

Fabaceae

Liana

R, OF, AR

Scrambler

< 500

5

Actinidia callosa Lindl.

Soyala K 159

Actinidiaceae

Liana

DF, FE, OF

Rambler

500–1500

6

Aeschynanthus bracteatus Wall. ex A.DC.

Soyala K 034

Gesneriaceae

Vine

R, OF, AR

Root

< 500

7

Allamanda cathartica L.

Soyala K 003

Apocynaceae

Liana

AR

Rambler

< 500

8

Ampelocissus barbata (Wall.) Planch.

Soyala K 090

Vitaceae

Liana

AR, DIF, OF

Tendrils

< 500

9

Anamirta cocculus (L.) Wight & Arn.

Soyala K 161

Menispermaceae

Liana

AR, OF

Twiner

< 500

10

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis

Soyala K 180

Basellaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

< 500

11

Argyreia capitiformis (Poir.) Ooststr.

Soyala K 033

Convolvulaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

12

Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) Bojer

Soyala K 034

Convolvulaceae

Vine

AR, WL, R, DIF

Twiner

< 500

13

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Soyala K 115

Asparagaceae

Liana

R

Twiner

< 500

14

Aspidocarya uvifera Hook.f. & Thomson

Soyala K 085

Menispermaceae

Liana

DF, OF

Twiner

500–1500

15

Bauhinia divergens Baker

Soyala K 079

Fabaceae

Liana

FE

Tendril

500–1500

16

Bauhinia khasiana Baker

Soyala K 122

Fabaceae

Liana

AR

Tendril

< 500

17

Bauhinia scandens L.

Soyala K 165

Fabaceae

Liana

DIF, R, OF

Tendril

0–1000

18

Beaumontia grandiflora Wall.

Soyala K 020

Apocynaceae

Liana

AR

Twiner

< 500

19

Berchemia floribunda (Wall.) Brongn.

Soyala K 049

Rhamnaceae

Liana

FE

Rambler

500–1500

20

Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

Soyala K 032

Nyctaginaceae

Liana

AR

Scrambler

< 500

21

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Soyala K 179

Fabaceae

Liana

R, FE, OF

Scrambler

< 500

22

Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb.

Soyala K 171

Fabaceae

Liana

R, DIF

Scrambler

0–1000

23

Calamus flagellum Griff. ex Mart.

Soyala K 099

Arecaceae

Liana

R, AR

Scrambler

0–1000

24

Calamus leptospadix Griff.

Soyala K 142

Arecaceae

Liana

DIF

Scrambler

500–1000

25

Calamus tenuis Roxb.

Soyala K 127

Arecaceae

Liana

DF, DIF, OF

Scrambler

0–1500

26

Cayratia corniculata (Benth.) Gagnep.

Soyala K 145

Vitaceae

Vine

FE, AR

Tendril

< 500

27

Cayratia geniculata (Blume) Gagnep.

Soyala K 027

Vitaceae

Liana

FE, DIF

Tendril

< 500

28

Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep.

Soyala K 004

Vitaceae

Vine

AR, DIF, WL

Tendril

0–1500

29

Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep.

Soyala K 050

Vitaceae

Vine

R

Tendril

500–1000

30

Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin

Soyala K 028

Vitaceae

Vine

DIF, R, OF

Tendril

0–1500

31

Centrosema pubescens Benth.

Soyala K 001

Fabaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

32

Cissampelopsis volubilis (Blume) Miq.

Soyala K 051

Asteraceae

Vine

FE, OF

Twiner

500–1500

33

Cissampelos pareira L.

Soyala K 029

Menispermaceae

Vine

AR, FE

Twiner

0–1000

34

Cissus adnata Roxb.

Soyala K 081

Vitaceae

Vine

AR, FE

Tendril

500–1000

35

Clematis acuminata DC.

Soyala K 162

Ranunculaceae

Vine

R

Tendril

< 500

36

Clerodendrum splendens G.Don

Soyala K 146

Lamiaceae

Liana

AR

Twiner

< 500

37

Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f.

Soyala K 174

Lamiaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

< 500

38

Clitoria ternatea L.

Soyala K 002

Fabaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

< 500

39

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt

Soyala K 005

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

AR, FE, WL

Tendril

0–1000

40

Codonopsis javanica (Blume) Hook.f. & Thomson

Soyala K 172

Convolvulaceae

Vine

FE, OF

Twiner

500–1500

41

Combretum decandrum Jacq.

Soyala K 133

Combretaceae

Liana

DIF, FE

Twiner

0–1000

42

Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

Soyala K 006

Combretaceae

Liana

AR

Twiner

< 500

43

Crawfurdia campanulacea Wall. & Griff. ex C.B.Clarke

Soyala K 052

Gentianaceae

Vine

FE, DIF, AR

Twiner

500– beyond 1500

44

Croton caudatus Geiseler

Soyala K 176

Euphorbiaceae

Liana

AR, FE, R, DIF

Twiner

< 500

45

Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R. Almeida

Soyala K 046

Apocynaceae

Liana

DIF, AR

Twiner

0–1000

46

Cryptolepis sinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Soyala K 108

Apocynaceae

Liana

R, OF

Twiner

500–1000

47

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Soyala K 055

Convolvulaceae

Vine

WL, DIF, AR

Twiner

All elevation zones

48

Dalhousiea bracteata (Roxb.) Benth.

Soyala K 113

Fabaceae

Liana

R, DIF, FE

Twiner

< 500

49

Decalepis khasiana (Kurz) Ionta ex Kambale

Soyala K 105

Apocynaceae

Liana

R

Twiner

500–100

50

Derris marginata (Roxb.) Benth.

Soyala K 053

Fabaceae

Liana

DF, AR, FE, R

Twiner

500–1500

51

Dioscorea alata L.

Soyala K 155

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

0–1500

52

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Soyala K 107

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

R, FE

Twiner

0–1000

53

Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill

Soyala K 177

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

< 500

54

Dioscorea floribunda M.Martens & Galeotti

Soyala K 183

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

FE

Twiner

< 500

55

Dioscorea glabra Roxb.

Soyala K 109

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

FE, AR

Twiner

500–1000

56

Dioscorea hispida Dennst.

Soyala K 110

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

500–1000

57

Dioscorea oppositifolia L.

Soyala K 007

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

FE

Twiner

< 500

58

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Soyala K 153

Dioscoreaceae

Vine

FE, AR

Twiner

0–1500

59

Embelia floribunda Wall.

Soyala K 075

Primulaceae

Liana

DIF, AR

Rambler

1000–1500

60

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.

Soyala K 131

Fabaceae

 Liana

DF

Twiner

500–1500

61

Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting

Soyala K 031

Araceae

Liana

AR, FE

Root

< 500

62

Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl.

Soyala K 064

Araceae

Liana

AR, DF, FE, OF

Root

All elevation zones

63

Erythropalum scandens Blume

Soyala K 102

Oleaceae

Liana

R

Twiner

500–1000

64

Euonymus sp.

Soyala K 112

Celastraceae

Liana

DIF

Root

500–1000

65

Ficus hederacea Roxb.

Soyala K 036

Moraceae

Liana

AR, FE, R

Root

< 500

66

Ficus pumila L.

Soyala K 037

Moraceae

Liana

FE, AR

Root

< 500; 1000–1500

67

Fissistigma sp.

Soyala K 184

Annonaceae

Liana

DIF

Twiner

< 500

68

Gnetum montanum Markgr.

Soyala K 101

Gnetaceae

Liana

R, DIF, DF, OF

Twiner

0–1000

69

Gouania leptostachya DC.

Soyala K 086

Rhamnaceae

Liana

R, AR

Tendril

0–1000

70

Hedyotis scandens Roxb.

Soyala K 087

Rubiaceae

Vine

AR, DIF, FE

Twiner

0–1500

71

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

Soyala K 136

Apocynaceae

Vine

DIF

Twiner

< 500; 1000–1500

72

Heterosmilax japonica Kunth

Soyala K 096

Smilacaceae

Vine

DF

Tendril

1000–1500

73

Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook.f. & Thomson

Soyala K 065

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

FE

Tendrils

>1500

74

Holboellia latifolia Wall.

Soyala K 124

Berberidaceae

Liana

AR, DIF, R, OF

Twiner

< 500

75

Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz.

Soyala K 015

Lamiaceae

Liana

AR, WL

Rambler

< 500

76

Hoya globulosa Hook.f.

Soyala K 038

Apocynaceae

Liana

AR

Twiner

< 500

77

Hoya pubicalyx Merr.

Soyala K 130

Apocynaceae

Liana

DIF

Twiner

< 500

78

Hydrangea anomala D. Don

Soyala K 097

Hydrangeaceae

Liana

R

Root

>1500

79

Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton

Soyala K 125

Apocynaceae

Liana

AR

Twiner

< 500

80

Ipomoea alba L.

Soyala K 060

Convolvulaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Twiner

< 500

81

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.

Soyala K 039

Convolvulaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

82

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

Soyala K 156

Convolvulaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Twiner

0–1000

83

Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet

Soyala K 042

Convolvulaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Twiner

< 500

84

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth

Soyala K 092

Convolvulaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

< 500

85

Ipomoea quamoclit L.

Soyala K 008

Convolvulaceae

Vine

AR

Twiner

< 500

86

Ipomoea triloba L.

Soyala K 014

Convolvulaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

87

Jasminum laurifolium Roxb. ex Hornem.

Soyala K 089

Oleaceae

Liana

OF

Rambler

500–1000

88

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.

Soyala K 163

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

AR, FE

Tendrils

500–1500

89

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem.

Soyala K 009

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Tendrils

< 500

90

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Soyala K 082

Lycopodiaceae

Vine

AR

Rambler

0–1000

91

Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.

Soyala K 116

Lygodiaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Twiner

< 500

92

Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw.

Soyala K 170

Lygodiaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

93

Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb.

Soyala K 013

Fabaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

94

Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H. Gentry

Soyala K 040

Bignoniaceae

Liana

AR

Tendril

< 500

95

Mastersia assamica Benth.

Soyala K 148

Fabaceae

Liana

AR, FE, WL

Twiner

< 500

96

Melocalamus compactiflorus (Kurz) Benth.

Soyala K 128

Poaceae

Liana

FE

Rambler

< 500

97

Melodinus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Soyala K 024

Apocynaceae

Liana

FE

Rambler

< 500

98

Merremia umbellata (L.) Hallier f.

Soyala K 117

Convolvulaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner

< 500

99

Mikania micrantha Kunth

Soyala K 095

Asteraceae

Vine

AR, DIF, FE, OF, R, WL

Twiner

All elevation zones

100

Millettia pachycarpa Benth.

Soyala K 143

Fabaceae

Liana

AR, DF, FE, OF

Twiner

0–1500

101

Momordica charantia L.

Soyala K 041

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

WL

Tendril

< 500

102

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.

Soyala K 061

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

R, FE

Tendril

< 500

103

Mukia maderaspatana (L.) M.Roem.

Soyala K 033

Cucurbitaceae

Vine

WL, R, AR

Tendril

< 500

104

Myxopyrum smilacifolium (Wall.) Blume

Soyala K 021

Oleaceae

Liana

FE, OF

Twiner

< 500

105

Naravelia zeylanica (L.) DC.

Soyala K 043

Ranunculaceae

Liana

FE, AR

Tendril

< 500

106

Natsiatum herpeticum Buch.-Ham. ex Arn.

Soyala K 114

Icacinaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Twiner

< 500

107

Paederia foetida L.

Soyala K 123

Rubiaceae

Vine

WL, R, AR

Twiner

0–1000

108

Parthenocissus semicordata (Wall.) Planch.

Soyala K 062

Vitaceae

Vine

R

Tendril

>1500

109

Passiflora vitifolia Kunth

Soyala K 154

Passifloraceae

Vine

AR

Tendril

< 500

110

Pegia nitida Colebr.

Soyala K 126

Anacardiaceae

Liana

AR, FE, WL

Rambler

0–1000

111

Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr.

Soyala K 144

Menispermaceae

Vines

FE, OF

Twiner

0–1000

112

Periploca calophylla (Wight) Falc.

Soyala K 063

Apocynaceae

Liana

DF, FE

Twiner

>1500

113

Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross

Soyala K 158

Polygonaceae

Vine

AR

Rambler

0–1000

114

Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe

Soyala K 119

Polygonaceae

Vine

AR

Rambler

< 500

115

Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq.) Schott

Soyala K 157

Araceae

Vine

AR, R

Root

< 500

116

Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.

Soyala K 151

Euphorbiaceae

Liana

WL

Scrambler

< 500

117

Piper acutistigmum C.DC.

Soyala K 080

Piperaceae

Vine

FE, R

Root

0–1500

118

Piper arunachalensis Gajurel, Rethy & Y. Kumar

Soyala K 047

Piperaceae

Vine

FE, R

Root

500–1500

119

Piper attenuatum Buch.-Ham. ex Miq.

Soyala K 019

Piperaceae

Vine

AR, FE, R

Root

0–1000

120

Piper betleoides C.DC.

Soyala K 106

Piperaceae

Vine

AR, FE

Root

0–1500

121

Piper griffithii C.DC.

Soyala K 023

Piperaceae

Vine

FE

Root

< 500

122

Piper haridasanii Gajurel, Rethy & Y. Kumar

Soyala K 017

Piperaceae

Vine

AR, FE, R

Root

< 500

123

Piper longum L.

Soyala K 072

Piperaceae

Vine

AR, FE

Root

< 500

124

Piper rhytidocarpum Hook. f.

Soyala K 016

Piperaceae

Vine

FE, R, OF

Root

01000

125

Piper sylvaticum Roxb.

Soyala K 018

Piperaceae

Vine

AR, FE

Root

< 500

126

Poikilospermum naucleiflorum (Roxburgh ex Lindl.) Chew

Soyala K 129

Urticaceae

Liana

DF, FE

Root

0–1000

127

Polygonum perfoliatum L.

Soyala K 181

Polygonaceae

Vine

R, WL

Rambler

0–1000

128

Pothos chinensis (Raf.) Merr.

Soyala K 134

Araceae

Vine

AR, FE

Root

< 500; 1000–1500

129

Pothos longipes Schott

Soyala K 120

Araceae

Vine

DF, FE

Root

>1500

130

Pothos scandens L.

Soyala K 091

Araceae

Vine

AR, DF

Root

< 500; >1500

131

Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep

Soyala K 012

Fabaceae

Vine

AR, WL

Twiner

< 500

132

Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.

Soyala K 094

Fabaceae

Vine

WL

Twiner