Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 September 2020 | 12(13): 16764–16774

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5113.12.13.16764-16774

#5113 | Received 25 March 2019 | Final received 17 August 2020 | Finally accepted 23 August 2020

 

 

Avifauna of Saurashtra University Campus, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

 

Varsha Trivedi 1  & Sanjay Vaghela 2

 

1,2 Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, UGC Centre of Advance Studies, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat 360005, India.

1 vtrivedi_2@rediffmail.com (corresponding author),  2 s.vaghela005@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: S. Balachandran, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.           Date of publication: 26 September 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Trivedi, V. & S. Vaghela (2020). Avifauna of Saurashtra University Campus, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(13): 16764–16774. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5113.12.13.16764-16774

 

Copyright: © Trivedi & Vaghela 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: University Grants Commission (UGC), Govt. of India, New Delhi, for supporting this study as a part of departmental research through its DSA/Centre of Advanced Study Programme (CAS).Part of the Department Project - CAS Phase I & II: Letter No. F.5-4/2012/(SAP-II), Dt. 1 April 2013-31 March 2018, Title: Arid Zone Biology, Theme-2 Faunal Diversity and EcologyTerrestrial Faunal DiversityApproval dt. 02-07-2012 /06-02-2013 Implement dt. 01-04-2013 CAS Phase I: Second Report dt. 01/04/2015 to 31/03/2016, Phase I -2015-2016; Completion date/year : 31-03-2018, Project Funded Cost: 136.32Lakhs.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Varsha Trivedi is a senior assistant professor in UGC-CAS Department of Biosciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Studies, Saurashtra University. Her research specialization is in functional anatomy in Columbiformes birds. Sanjay Vaghela is research scholar and interested in avian study.

 

Author contribution: The final manuscript was prepared, analyzed, read, approved and communicated by the VT and SV undertook field data collection, organized and assimilated the data, table and graphic preparation and drafted the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to UGC Centre of Advanced Studies Delhi, India, for providing financial support.  Authors also thank Head and Prof. S.P. Singh, Department of Biosciences providing necessary field work and laboratory facilities.

 

 

 

Abstract: We examined the avifauna of Saurashtra University Campus (SUC), Rajkot, Gujarat from July to December 2017.  The study area was divided into four sections: North (N), East (E), South (S) and West (W) and surveyed over 18 visits (four line transects/visit).  We recorded a total of 82 bird species from 67 genera, 40 families and 16 orders.  Of these 57 species were terrestrial and 25 aquatic.  By population size the most abundant birds were members of Columbidae (28%), Sturnidae (13%), and Charadridae (8%).  Seventy per cent of birds observed (n=7665) were classed as very common and 2% (n=261) as very rare.  Species density (S/N = 3.39) and population density (n/N = 196) were at their maximum in December.  Ecological indices on temporal base reveal high species richness and Simpson diversity (1/D =17.0 and 1-D= 0.942) in August and November and Shannon diversity was high (H’=3.275) in November during study period.

 

Keywords: Birds, checklist, population density, status, temporal.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Birds play key roles as agents of flower pollination and seed dispersal (Nason 1992).  Likewise, structurally complex habitats provide more niche and diverse ways of exploiting environmental resources, increase species diversity (Bazzaz 1975), and the inter-relationship between vegetation and bird population (Mac Arthur & Mac Arthur 1961) including the positive and negative changes in the bird population result in the transformation of the natural environment (Emlen 1974).  Skead (1966), Maxwell & Kale (1977), and McCrimmon (1978) have discussed that the habitat is significant for the successful completion of the life cycle of the organism.  The highly dynamic nature of urban ecosystems means that a small effort in management can have a great effect on bird abundance and diversity (Savard et al. 2000).  It is stated by Tews et al. (2004) that animal species diversity is driven by habitat heterogeneity.

The present work deals with urban ecosystems using birds as a target group.  Birds are quite sensitive to changes in habitat structure and composition, and are, therefore, excellent indicators of changes and stresses in the urban ecosystem (Savard & Falls 1982; Clergeau et al. 1998).  Joshi (2009) reported 79 species of birds from some reservoirs of Rajkot City and 30 species of water birds from Nyari Dam1 (Vadhel 2010) of Rajkot.  Past record of year 2016 on avifauna from Saurashtra University Campus (SUC), Rajkot reports a total of 80 species of birds belonging to 66 genera of 39 families (Gohil 2017).  The current study of avian fauna was carried out to understand the impact of the current developmental work being undertaken in the SUC on habitat suitability for wildlife in the coming years.  Moreover, every year habitat characteristics are changing due to the construction of new buildings, decrease in open landscapes and fragmentation of the various macro and micro-habitats in SUC.  So, the specific attention on avian diversity of SUC is the intention of the present study.  In addition, the study also aims to develop a wildlife database on wildlife of this university campus.

This study presents a checklist of birds with updated systematic, familial distribution, abundance status, species composition, conservation status and their population on temporal base including ecological indices.  Hypothetically, it is assumed that the overall bird population and their species community assemblage is expected to diversify on temporal scale as well as with changes in macro and microhabitat types at SUC, Rajkot.

 

STUDY AREA

 

Saurashtra University Campus (SUC) Rajkot (Latitude: 22.29161000, Longitude: 70.79322000, 140m) is located at the centre of peninsular Saurashtra region in Gujarat State (Fig. 1A).  The climate of Rajkot is tropical arid to semi-arid with three distinct seasons each year, monsoon, winter, and summer.  The annual rainfall is erratic in its occurrence, duration and intensity.  Annual rainfall was high 1,311.2mm during 2017; average temperature varies between 21.5˚C and 34.5˚C and average humidity ranges between 57.9 and 88.4% (morning) and 17.4 to 80.3% (evening).  The area is spread over 1,456km2 (360 acres) with hilly terrain (Fig. 1B).

The ecological overview of all four sections of SUC include predominant vegetation layer such as trees: Azadirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Aegle marmelos, Delonix regia, Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, Kesiya auriculata, Prosopis juliflora, P. spicigera, Emblica officinalis, Tamarindus indica, Jetropha kalkas, Cassia roxburghii, C. fistula, Albizia lebbeck, Pongamia pinnata, etc.; shrubs: Ocimum tenuiflorum, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calotropis procera and Zyziphus numularia; ornamental plants: Tecoma stans, Cascabela thevetia, Duranta repens, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Catharanthus roseus, and Lantana camara.

 

 

METHODS

 

The work was carried out during July to December 2017 at Saurashtra University Campus (SUC), Rajkot Gujarat.  To record the birds of all four sections (i.e., North, East, South, and West) surveyed using line transects (by road 1km long and 5m broad right and left using binocular) and some places at water reservoirs by point count methods. Inside each zone approaching peripheral boundaries by road with motor bike, by walk-ways and walk at random. Data records on bird sightings, the birds present in and around the selected four sections at SUC; including overflying individuals or flock, resting on trees, feeding on the ground and some individual as well as large flock by photos also.

In total 18 surveys (3 visits/month and 4 transects/visit in each sections) were done during study periods from 06:00hrs to 12:00hrs and 90 minutes were spent at each section.  The data were collected using a pair of binoculars (Olympus, 12 X 50) and photographs (Sony cyber shot 18.2 mega pixel 20x zoom) by digital still camera for close examinations.

Systematic updates, identification of birds were followed by using references such as Ali & Ripley (1983), Sugathan & Varghese (1996), Ali (2012), Parasharya et al. (2004), Sangha & Naoroji (2005), Grimmett et al. (2013), Ansari & Nawab (2015), Ganpule (2016), Manohar et al. (2017); common name and scientific name updated as Praveen et al. (2018) and Satose et al. (2020).

 

Data analysis

The abundance status of the recorded bird species was categorized into five groups (i.e., VR—Very Rare (1–20 %), R—Rare (21–40%), O—Occasional (41–60 %), C—Common (61–80 %), and VC—Very Common (81–100 %), established on the basis of frequency (%) (Table 1, Fig. 2) and frequency calculated (i.e., total no of occurrence/total no of visit x 100).

A checklist of birds with systematics including conservation status is followed as per IUCN (2020-version 1), WPA (1972) and CITES (2020) (Table 1).  Classification was followed and updated (Praveen et al. 2018; Satose et al. 2020); familial number and percentages of individual birds, genera and species were calculated (Table 2; Fig. 3).  Species community and their assemblages by month, cumulative count of individuals and species number (Fig. 4) on temporal scale were scrutinized.

The quantitative and qualitative analysis as population and species density, species diversity indices like Simpson diversity 1/D; 1-D; Shannon diversity –H’, evenness - e^H/S, Margalef’s species richness (d), and Fisher alpha diversity (α) were computed using software PAST (version: 3.15 March 2017) by Hammer et al. (2001).

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

A total 82 species of birds, belonging to 67 genera, 40 families and 16 orders were recorded.  Of these, terrestrial population (86.82%) of birds and species (n-57, 69.51%) were higher than aquatic population (13.18%) and numbers of species (n-25, 30.49%) of birds (Table 1, 2) during study period at studied areas.

Out of 40 families, Scolopacidae dominated with seven species (8.54%) followed by Muscicapidae with six species (7.32%), Accipitridae and Motacillidae with five species (6%), Ardeidae, Columbidae, Hirundinidae, Sturnidae with four species (4.88%) each, Charadriidae, Cisticolidae with three species (3.66%) each, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Phasianidae, Laridae, Cuculidae, Sylviidae, Leiothrichidae with two species (2.44%) each, whereas 23 families Rallidae, Pelecanidae, Burhinidae, Recurvirostridae, Strigidae, Upupidae, Megalaimidae, Meropidae, Alcedinidae, Psittaculidae, Oriolidae, Dicruridae, Laniidae, Corvidae, Nectariniidae, Ploceidae, Estrildidae, Passeridae, Alaudidae, Acrocephalidae, Psycnonotidae, Ciconiidae, Phalacrocoracidae with only one species each respectively (Table 2).  The population of a member of family Columbidae (27.94%, n=3085) stands first; followed by Sturnidae (13.39%, n=1478) and Charadriidae (7.77%, n=858) has shown higher population and the lowest population Laniidae  (0.04%, n = 4) i.e. Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach.  Maximum genus was found in family Muscicapidae (8.96%) and Accipitridae (7.465%) (Fig. 3).

 

Species community and status

Seventy per cent (n=7665) population of birds were very common, 2% (n=261) very rare, 27% (n=22) species were common, and only 10% were rare (n=8) (Table 1, Fig. 2).  Of the 82 species recorded, the five species observed with highest population were the Rock Pigeon Columba livia (106 mean), Rosy Starling Pastor roseus (43 mean), Large Grey Babbler Turdoides malcolmi (35 mean), Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus (34 mean), and Common Myna Acridotheres tristis (33 mean) (Table 1).

Out of 17 very common bird species, nine species were sighted in every visit (100%) namely Rock Pigeon, Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocta, Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis, Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus, Red-wattled Lapwing, House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer, Common Myna and Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicatus.  There were eight common species sighted between 11 and 14 visits out of the 18 visits; among these, the most dominant were Rosy Starling (13 times out of 18, n=796); as Indian Silverbill Euodice malabarica (n=362) and Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus (14 times out of 18, n=139).  Fifteen species were occasionally seen, 22 species rare and 20 species were very rare; among the very rare category, the rarest one was Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis.  Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus and Lesser White throat (Sylvia curruca) were sighted only once during the survey (Table 1).

 

Conservation status of avian fauna

The SUC supports six species of birds included in Schedule I, 70 species included in Schedule IV of the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA, 1972) and six species that are listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES 2020).  As per IUCN red list, SUC supports three Near-threatened (NT) species such as Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea and River Tern Sterna aurantia (IUCN 2020-ver. 1), remaining 79 species are under Least Concern (LC) (Table 1).

 

Species composition and assemblages on temporal scale

Throughout the six-month study period, it reflects that population of Rock Pigeon was maximum from August to December; second most was Rosy Starling and third most populous species (Large Grey Babbler) dominated from post monsoon to winter (October–December).  Accumulation curve of number of species and individual shows a steep increase from July to October, thereafter, species and population of birds reveal gradual increase up to December (Fig. 4).

 

Statistical Analysis

Avian species density and diversity

Out of 11,041 individuals of birds reveal 82 species of all total survey (N=18).  The species Density (S/N) was high 4.56 species per survey during entire study period.  Evenness index (e): Evenness index is low (e < 0, 0.357).  As evenness index increase with decrease in stress (Pielou 1966), this clears study areas has no stress elements.  Species richness Margalof’s index (d): Margalof’s index of species richness was high 8.701; and this minimizes the effect of sample size bias (cited by Odum 1971).  Species richness as a measure on its own takes no account of the number of individuals of each species present.  It gives as much weight to those species which have very few individuals as compared to those which have many individuals.  Simpson’s Index Dominance (D): The value of D ranges between 0 and 1.  With this index, 0 represents infinite diversity and 1 no diversity.  That is, the bigger the value of D, the lower the diversity. Here, Simpson’s Index D is 0.0587 which is low far to zero so it concludes that the diversity of this study site has significantly higher diversity. Simpson’s Index of Diversity 1– D:  This index also ranges between 0 and 1, the greater the value, the greater the sample diversity.  Here the Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D) is 0.9413. So, it concludes that the diversity of this study site was higher.  Simpson’s Reciprocal Index 1 / D: This index starts with 1 as the lowest possible figure.  This figure would represent a community containing only one species.  Higher the value, greater the diversity, here the Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1/D) is 17.04.  So, it concludes that this study site has higher diversity of bird species.  Shannon Weiner Index (H’):  If the species are evenly distributed then the H’ value would be high.  So, the H’ value allows us to know not only the number of species but how the abundance of the species is distributed among all the species in the avian community.  Typical values of Shannon Weiner Index (H’) are generally between 1.5 and 3.5 in most ecological studies, and the index is rarely greater than 4.  The Shannon index increases as both the richness and the evenness of the community increase.  Shannon Weiner Index H’= 3.377; So, it concludes that abundance of avian species at this study site was high (Table 3).

Data analysis on temporal scale shows that population (n/N=196) and species density (S/N = 3.39) of birds were higher in December; whereas diversity indices reveal birds species richness and Simpson diversity (1/D =17.0 and 1-D= 0.941) was significantly higher in August and November; as Shannon diversity high in November (H’=3.275); dominance (D= 0.0741), evenness- e^H/S= 0.396), Margalef’s species richness (d = 7.668) and Fisher alpha diversity (α = 11.63) significant high and evenly distributed in September during study period.  Overall Fisher alpha diversity was high (α = 12.02) at study areas during entire study period.  This may reflect comparatively less stress in their environment and the climatic factor (i.e., Annual rainfall – 1311.2mm, average temperature 21.5–34.5 ˚C, average humidity ranges 57.9–88.4 % by morning, 2017), their physiography may provide suitable habitat and food availability during the study period at Saurashtra University Campus.

Comparing previous records from other sites reveals 68 species of birds from village areas of Gondal Taluka, Rajkot District (Borad 2009); 79 species from reservoirs of Rajkot City (Joshi 2009); 30 species of water birds of Nyari Dam1 (Vadhel 2010) Rajkot; 29 species from Sodvadar Reservoir and 24 species from Phophal Reservoir Jam-kandorna Tehsil, Rajkot District (Jambukiya 2014).  From Randarda Lake, 62 species of water birds recorded by Yadav (2015) and 65 species of water birds by Kasundra (2017); 80 species of birds from Saurashtra University Campus Rajkot (Gohil 2017); 51 species of water birds recorded from Aji-1 Water reservoir, Rajkot (Vala & Trivedi 2018).  This indicates that multi-habitat characteristics of Saurashtra University Campus areas support a wide range of specialist and generalist species of birds.

 

Table 1. Checklist of birds of Saurashtra University Campus, Rajkot. (July to December 2017; Total Survey=18).

 

Common name

Scientific name

M

  Fr %

AS

IUCN

WPA

CITES

 

Order: Anseriformes (i) Family: Anatidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Lesser Whistling-duck

Dendrocygna javanica

0.78

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

2

Indian Spot-billed Duck

Anas poecilorhyncha

1.67

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Galliformes (i) Family: Phasianidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Indian Peafowl

Pavocristatus

1.78

39

R

LC

Sch-I

-

4

Grey Francolin

Francolinus pondicerianus

9.39

56

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Columbiformes (i) Family: Columbidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Rock Pigeon

Columba livia

105.72

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

6

Eurasian Collared Dove

Streptopelia decaocta

29.28

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

7

Red Collared Dove

Streptopelia tranquebarica

10.06

50

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

8

Laughing Dove

Streptopelia senegalensis

26.33

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Cuculiformes (i) Family: Cuculidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

Greater Coucal

Centropus sinensis

2.00

72

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

10

Asian Koel

Eudynamys scolopaceus

2.94

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Gruiformes(i) Family: Rallidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

Common Coot

Fulica atra

0.78

11

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Pelecaniformes (i) Family: Pelecanidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

Great White Pelican

Pelecanus onocrotalus

0.89

11

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(ii) Family: Ardeidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

Indian Pond Heron

Ardeola grayii

1.00

39

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

14

Cattle Egret

Bubulcus ibis

8.56

94

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

15

Intermediate Egret

Ardea intermedia

0.28

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

16

Little Egret

Egretta garzetta

2.83

56

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(iii) Family: Threskiornithidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

Indian Black Ibis

Pseudibis papillosa

2.44

61

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

18

Glossy Ibis

Plegadis falcinellus

0.28

22

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Charadriiformes (i) Family: Burhinidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

Indian Thick-Knee

Burhinus indicus

3.17

44

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(ii) Family: Recurvirostridae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

Black-winged Stilt

Himantopus himantopus

2.94

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(iii) Family: Charadriidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius

1.00

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

22

Yellow-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus malabaricus

13.00

83

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

23

Red-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus indicus

33.67

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(iv) Family: Scolopacidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

Curlew Sandpiper

Calidris ferruginea

1.11

17

VR

NT

Sch-IV

-

25

Little Stint

Calidris minuta

1.06

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

26

Common Sandpiper

Actitis hypoleucos

1.22

44

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

27

Green Sandpiper

Tringa ochropus

0.56

22

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

28

Common Greenshank

Tringa nebularia

0.22

11

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

29

Wood Sandpiper

Tringa glareola

0.72

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

30

Marsh Sandpiper

Tringa stagnatilis

0.17

6

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(v) Family : Laridae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

River Tern

Sterna aurantia

0.17

11

VR

NT

Sch-IV

-

32

Common Tern

Sterna hirundo

0.22

11

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Accipitriformes (i) Family: Accipitridae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

Black-winged Kite

Elanus caeruleus

0.17

11

VR

LC

Sch-I

App II

34

Shikra

Accipiter badius

1.72

67

C

LC

Sch-I

App II

35

Brahminy Kite

Halias turindus

0.56

33

R

LC

Sch-I

App II

36

Black Kite

Milvus migrans

0.50

28

R

LC

Sch-I

App II

37

Long-legged Buzzard

Buteo rufinus

0.11

6

VR

LC

Sch-I

App II

 

Order: Strigiformes (i) Family: Strigidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38

Spotted Owlet

Athene brama

0.89

50

O

LC

Sch-IV

App II

 

Order: Bucerotiformes (i) Family: Upupidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39

Common Hoopoe

Upupa epops

2.78

50

O

LC

-

-

 

Order: Piciformes (i) Family:Megalaimidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40

Coppersmith Barbet

Psilopogon haemacephalus

2.28

50

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Coraciiformes (i) Family: Meropidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41

Green Bee-eater

Merops orientalis

25.89

94

VC

LC

-

-

 

(ii) Family: Alcedinidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

White-throated Kingfisher

Halcyon smyrnensis

1.17

67

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Psittaciformes (i) Family: Psittaculidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

Rose-ringed Parakeet

Psittacula krameri

19.44

94

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Passeriformes (i) Family : Oriolidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

44

Indian Golden Oriole

Oriolus kundoo

2.94

50

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(ii) Family:Dicruridae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

Black Drongo

Dicrurus macrocercus

19.44

94

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(iii) Family: Laniidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46

Long-tailed Shrike

Lanius schach

0.22

11

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(iv) Family:Corvidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47

Rufous Treepie

Dendrocitta vagabunda

3.11

78

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(v) Family:Nectarinidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48

Purple Sunbird

Cinnyris asiaticus

7.72

78

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(vi) Family: Ploceidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49

Baya Weaver

Ploceus philippinus

3.44

22

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(vii) Family: Estrildidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

Indian Silverbill

Euodice malabarica

20.11

78

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(viii) Family: Passeridae

 

 

 

 

 

 

51

House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

29.33

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(ix) Family: Motacillidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52

Paddyfield Pipit

Anthus rufulus

2.06

39

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

53

Western Yellow Wagtail

Motacilla flava

0.89

50

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

54

Citrine Wagtail

Motacilla citreola

0.83

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

55

White-browed Wagtail

Motacilla maderaspatensis

0.39

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

56

White Wagtail

Motacilla alba

0.83

44

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(x) Family : Alaudidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

57

Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark

Eremopterix griseus

10.72

83

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xi) Family: Cisticolidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58

Ashy Prinia

Prinia socialis

1.11

28

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

59

Plain Prinia

Prinia inornata

2.89

56

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

60

Common Tailorbird

Orthotomus sutorius

2.06

44

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xii) Family:Acrocephalidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

61

Paddy field Warbler

Acrocephalus agricola

3.83

22

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xii) Family: Hirundinidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

62

Red-rumped Swallow

Cecropis daurica

9.94

33

R

LC

-

-

63

Wire-tailed Swallow

Hirundo smithii

2.11

22

R

LC

-

-

64

Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica

4.56

22

R

LC

-

-

65

Dusky Crag Martin

Ptyonoprogne concolor

3.61

50

O

LC

-

-

 

(xiii) Family : Psycnonotidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

66

Red-vented Bulbul

Pycnonotus cafer

17.50

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xiv) Family : Sylviidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

67

Lesser Whitethroat

Sylvia curruca

0.11

6

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

68

Yellow-eyed Babbler

Chrysomma sinense

2.44

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xv) Family:Leiothrichidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

69

Large Grey Babbler

Argya malcolmi

35.00

94

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

70

Common Babbler

Argya caudata

3.33

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xvi) Family:Sturnidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

71

Rosy Starling

Pastor roseus

42.72

72

C

LC

Sch-IV

-

72

Brahminy Starling

Sturnia pagodarum

5.56

89

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

73

Common Myna

Acridotheres tristis

33.28

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

74

Bank Myna

Acridotheres ginginianus

0.56

11

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

(xvii) Family:Muscicapidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

Indian Robin

Saxicoloides fulicatus

10.00

100

VC

LC

Sch-IV

-

76

Oriental Magpie Robin

Copsychus saularis

0.89

33

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

77

Spotted Flycatcher

Muscicapa striata

0.67

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

78

Red-breasted Flycatcher

Ficedula parva

0.83

22

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

79

Black Redstart

Phoenicurus ochruros

0.50

17

VR

LC

Sch-IV

-

80

Pied Bushchat

Saxicola caprata

0.67

33

R

LC

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Ciconiiformes (i) Family: Ciconiidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

81

Painted Stork

Mycteria leucocephala

0.78

11

VR

NT

Sch-IV

-

 

Order: Suliformes (i) Family: Phalacrocoracidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

82

Little Cormorant

Phalacrocorax niger

4.50

50

O

LC

Sch-IV

-

M—Mean per visit | Fr—Frequency | AS—Abundance Status (frequency based) | LC—Least Concern | NT—Near Threatened | IUCN (2020-version 1) | Sch–I & IV (WPA, 1972) | App. II (CITES, 2020).

Identification of birds followed as per Grimmett et al. (2013), Satose et al. (2020),and Common name & Scientific Name updated (Praveen et al. 2018).

VR—Very Rare (1–20 %), R—Rare (21–40 %) | O—Occasional (41–60 %) | C—Common (61–80 %) | VC—Very Common ( 81–100 %) established on the basis of frequency (%)

 

Table 2. Familial numbers of genus and species of birds.

 

Family

Genus

Species

1

Anatidae

2

2

2

Phasianidae

2

2

3

Columbidae

2

4

4

Cuculidae

2

2

5

Rallidae

1

1

6

Pelecanidae

1

1

7

Ardeidae

4

4

8

Threskiornithidae

2

2

9

Burhinidae

1

1

10

Recurvirostridae

1

1

11

Charadriidae

2

3

12

Scolopacidae

3

7

13

Laridae

1

2

14

Accipitridae

5

5

15

Strigidae

1

1

16

Upupidae

1

1

17

Megalaimidae

1

1

18

Meropidae

1

1

19

Alcedinidae

1

1

20

Psittaculidae

1

1

21

Oriolidae

1

1

22

Dicruridae

1

1

23

Laniidae

1

1

24

Corvidae

1

1

25

Nectariniidae

1

1

26

Ploceidae

1

1

27

Estrildidae

1

1

28

Passeridae

1

1

29

Motacillidae

2

5

30

Alaudidae

1

1

31

Cisticolidae

2

3

32

Acrocephalidae

1

1

33

Hirundinidae

3

4

34

Psycnonotidae

1

1

35

Sylviidae

2

2

36

Leiothrichidae

1

2

37

Sturnidae

3

4

38

Muscicapidae

6

6

39

Ciconiidae

1

1

40

Phalacrocoracidae

1

1

 

Total

67

82