Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 November 2019 | 11(14): 14827–14844

 

 

Plant and fungi diversity of Devi Pindiyan Valley in Trikuta Hills of northwestern Himalaya, India

 

Sajan Thakur 1, Harish Chander Dutt 2, Bikarma Singh 3, Yash Pal Sharma 4, Nawang Tashi 5, Rajender Singh Charak 6, Geeta Sharma7, Om Prakash Vidyarthi 8, Tasir Iqbal 9, Bishander Singh 10 & Kewal Kumar  11

 

1,2,4,5,7,9 Department of Botany, 6 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir 180006, India.

3 Plant Sciences (Biodiversity and Applied Botany Division), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir 180001, India.

8 State Forest Research Institute, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir 180007, India.

10  Department of Botany, Veer Kunwar Singh University, Arrah, Bihar 802301, India.

11 Department of Botany, Government Degree College for Women, Udhampur, Jammu & Kashmir 182101, India.

1 sajan0007thakur@gmail.com, 2 hcdutt@rediffmail.com, 3 drbikarma@iiim.ac.in (corresponding author),

4 yashdbm3@yahoo.co.in, 5 nawang7786@gmail.com, 6 rajsinghju@gmail.com, 7 geetaji@yahoo.com,

8 opsfrijk@gmail.com, 9 taseer83@gmail.com, 10 bishander85@gmail.com, 11 kewalkumar0@gmail.com

 

 

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4792.11.14.14827-14844   

 

Editor: P. Lakshminarasimhan, Botanical Survey of India, Pune, India.       Date of publication: 26 November 2019 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: #4792 | Received 02 January 2019 | Final received 22 October 2019 | Finally accepted 31 October 2019

 

Citation: Thakur, S., H.C. Dutt, B. Singh, Y.P. Sharma, N. Tashi, R.S. Charak, G. Sharma, O.P. Vidyarthi, T. Iqbal, B. Singh & K. Kumar (2019). Plant and fungi diversity of Devi Pindiyan Valley in Trikuta Hills of northwestern Himalaya, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(14): 14827–14844. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4792.11.14.14827-14844

 

Copyright: © Thakur et al. 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Financial assistance received from UGC-SAP DRS-II and CSIR.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Mr. Sajan Thakur, Mr. Nawang Tashi, Mr. Bishander Singh and Mr. Tasir Iqbal are PhD research scholars.  Dr. Harish Chander Dutt works extensively in the area of plant ecology and taxonomy. Dr. Bikarma Singh is a higher plant taxonomist in the area of systematics, ecology, ethnobotany, and plant natural products for value addition. Prof. Yash Pal Sharma has expertise in mushrooms of Himalaya. Dr. Rajender Singh Charak is a Cartographer and an expert in Cartography, Remote Sensing and GIS. Prof. Geeta Sharma is an expert in botany. Mr. Om Prakash Vidyarthi is a chief conservator of forest and is known for tree talk. Dr. Kewal Kumar works in GDC Udhampur and possesses expertise in botany.

 

Author contribution: BS, HCD and YPS conceived the idea. ST, HCD, BS, YPS, NT, TQ, RSC, GS, KK and OPV collected, identified, compiled and prepared the manuscript. BS provided the native and non-native status of the species presented in the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: We thank the headman and local people of various localities of the region for their help in various ways. The help received from Department of Forest, Government of J&K is also acknowledged. This publication bears publication number CSIR-IIIM/IPR/0078.

 

 

 

Abstract: The Devi Pindiyan Valley, an abode of Goddess Vaishno Devi, in Trikuta Hills (western Himalaya) is a unique hill-top land ecosystem with a diverse regional mixed subtropical and temperate flora. Because of its suitable geographic location, specific and unique habitat conditions, this mountainous belt of Shivalik Himalaya has a large number of endemic and threatened plant species.  This study presents information on the plant diversity of Devi Pindiyan Valley of Trikuta Hills. Several line-transect (100m N-S and 100 E-W) surveys were conducted in which nested quadrats of 10m × 10m were laid for trees, within which interspersed two 5m × 5m sub-quadrats for shrubs and five 1m × 1m sub-quadrants for herbs at different places for determination of floristic composition. In the diverse habitats of this valley, we recorded 213 vascular plant species belonging to 164 genera under 71 families. This study area also harbors rich diversity of fungi, where the most visible 7 species of macrofungi belongs to 7 genera and 4 families were documented.  Out of the documented species, 35 species have been categorized as threatened based on the latest IUCN Red list criteria, while 178 species are included in the catalogue of world life. Engelhardtia spicata Lechen ex Blume var. integra (Kurz) Manning ex Steenis has been categorized as Least Concerned (LC) by IUCN Red List site. The species diversity indicates the high conservation value of this area and documenting such an ecologically rich ecosystem becomes a prerequisite for developing and formulating conservation-cum-management strategies. Therefore, we recommend there is need for ecological research in terms of biodiversity conservation on Devi Pindiyan Valley and similar ecosystems.

 

Keywords: Conservation status, Devi Pindiyan Valley, floristic composition, Shivalik Himalaya.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Himalayan eco-terrains are globally recognized as a hub and repository of unique biological diversity in Asia, and their distribution differs from tropical to alpine climate (Nayar & Shastry 1987; Singh 2019). The species composition of the Himalayan hills and mountains varies from place to place and these variations depend mainly on different climatic factors coupled with differences in latitude, longitude, and altitude (Singh 2015).The Indian Himalaya are home to more than 8,000 species of vascular plants, of which 4,000 species are endemic and 1,748 are known for their medicinal properties (Samant et al. 1998; Singh 2019a).  The western Himalayan geographic region extends from Jammu & Kashmir to the Kumaon belt of Uttarakhand State. The Shivalik region of Jammu division is known for unique and endemic species whose occurrence is due to favorable climatic conditions required for the growth and dissemination of plant species (Singh 2019b). Review of literature reveals that Jammu & Kashmir is home to about 4,439 species of plants (Singh et al. 1999), and out of these, 948 species are published to have medicinal and aromatic value (Gairola et al. 2014). It is evident from the published work that a lot of research has been carried out in this region by different plant scientists to study biodiversity, ethnobotany, ecology, and data up-gradation on environmental parameters (Sharma & Kachroo 1983; Kapur & Sarin 1990; Swami & Gupta 1998; Kirn 2000; Kumar & Hamal 2009; Kumar et al. 2009, 2015; Kumar & Sharma 2011; Bhellum & Magotra 2012; Bhatia et al. 2013, 2014; Dar et al. 2014; Dutt et al. 2015; Kour et al. 2017; Pandita & Dutt 2017; Singh et al. 2016, 2019).

Trikuta Hills in the Himalaya are known for the holy pilgrimage of the shrine of Shri Mata Vaishno Devi and more than 1.5 lakh people visit this place of worship every year from different parts of the globe. This shrine mountain ecosystem has several steep slopes, deep gorges and valleys, rich in different types of vegetation. Ecologically, these hills can be characterized as sub-tropical to temperate mixed vegetation, rich in Pinus, Quercus, Engelhardtia, and Cedrus as dominant tree species. The elevation of this mountain ranges from 750 to 2,706m. Many sacred rivers and small streams originate from these hills, and the higher reaches of these hills are occasionally covered with snow during winter months. There are several unexplored regions due to sacred beliefs and tough terrain in the hills. In this study, we present the floral and fungal diversity of Devi Pindiyan Valley with an aim to conserve species in this valley.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Study Area

Devi Pindiyan Valley of Trikuta Hill is situated 36km from Jammu Town and 13km from Katra City (Reasi District) in Panthal forest area. It lies between latitudes of 32.892 to 33.010N and longitudes of 74.986 to 74.995E and the elevation range of 860–1,360m (Figure 1).  It covers approximately an area of 17.3 km2. The study area is part of district Reasi of Jammu & Kashmir. This mountainous belt falls in the Palaearctic Realm and the forest terrains are rugged and the hills are characterized by moderate to steep slopes. The vegetation components are characterized by typical subtropical and temperate forests. The forest components as a whole are regarded as a sacred grove and named Devi Pindiyan Shakti Pith. The upper ridges of Trikuta Hill experiences winter snowfall which is responsible for the moderate temperature in summer and cool weather in winter. December–January are the coldest months of the year when minimum temperatures reach minus 4°C. The mean temperature in January is about 8°C, and in May, the temperature rises between 35°C and 40°C. The annual rainfall ranges between 3,200mm and 3,472mm, distributed over 60–90 rain days. A number of seasonal streams that provide water to the local community for domestic purposes originate from the forest reserve. River Jhajjar is one of the important sacred perennial water system originating from Trikuta Hill which runs through the valley. There are only four villages where an indigenous Dogri speaking community of Duggar resides. Due to the remote location, typical physiography and climate, the local people derive much of their livelihood from agriculture, horticulture and floriculture.  They mostly depend on forest resources for food, shelter and medicine. Since the region is known as a sacred place, some of them cultivate marigolds for sale in the market which adds to their earnings.

 

Field Survey, Data Collection and Identification

Four field exploration tours were undertaken for survey, collection and mapping of plant samples from six study sites in Devi Pindiyan Valley from March 2017 till September 2018 with the help of experts from the J&K Forest Department, CSIR-IIIM Jammu, and the University of Jammu (Image 1). Several line-transect (100m N-S and 100m E-W) surveys were conducted at different places for determination of floristic composition. Nested quadrats of 10 × 10m were laid for trees, within which were interspersed two 5 × 5m sub-quadrats for shrubs and five 1 × 1m sub-quadrats for herbs in different growing seasons. GPS coordinates were recorded by using Garmin Oregon 650 GPS navigation device (Table 1). Data on habit, phenological characters and associated species of plants were collected along with digital photographs. Macro-fungi present in the area were also systematically collected, photographed and preserved. Laboratory studies were conducted in the Department of Botany, University of Jammu and RRLH Janaki Ammal Herbarium at CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (CSIR-IIIM). Conventional herbarium techniques proposed by Jain & Rao (1977) and Rao & Sharma (1990) were followed. The accurate identification and authentication of plants was based on the collected herbarium vouchers and photographs, which were used as unique evidence and reference material for regional distribution. Proper identification and naming of macro-fungi species was done through individual expertise and online databases such as Index fungorum (www.indexfungorum.org) and Mycobank (www.mycobank.org).

The species were enumerated and photographed through non-invasive methods. The vouchers of the collected plants were identified by comparing them physically with existing preserved specimens at the Herbarium of the University of Jammu (HBJU) and Janaki Ammal Herbarium (RRLH) Jammu. Later, all taxa were authenticated by using taxonomic keys and published floras (Sharma & Kachroo 1983; Kapur & Sarin 1990; Swami & Gupta 1998). The prepared herbarium sheets were deposited at the Herbarium of University of Jammu (HBJU).

 

Systematization and Presentation

All plant species of Devi Pindiyan were systematically arranged. Families were arranged as per Bentham and Hooker’s System of Classification (Bentham & Hooker 1876). Habit of each plant species were categorized as trees, shrubs, herbs and lianas. The correct ICN names of each plant and macro-fungi species were carried out using web-based databases (www.theplantlist.org, www.indexfungorum.org and www.mycobank.org). The threat status of each species was determined using the online database of IUCN Red List (www.iucnredlist.org) and presented as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Least Concern, Data Deficient and if similar information was not available, then they were designated as NA.

 

 

Results

 

Forest Characterization

The intermediate climate between the subtropical and the temperate vegetation along with the topography of the Devi Pindiyan Valley is responsible for its unusual mixed type of vegetation. The forest belts possess different types of very unique plant associations such as mixed deciduous broad-leaved forests, lower pine association coupled with secondary scrub parameters. This valley is dominated by species such as Sapium sebiferum, Grewia optiva and Toona ciliata in mixed broad-leaved areas.  Pinus roxburghii, Phoenix dactylifera, Trema politoria, and Debregeasia longifolia at the upper hills mixed with pine vegetation. The secondary scrubby layers are dominated by Woodfordia fruticosa, Justicia adhatoda, Euphorbia royleana and Ehretia acuminata.  

 

Floristic Composition and Analysis

A total of 213 plant species belonging to 165 genera and 71 vascular plant families were collected from the Devi Pindiyan and associated hills of Trikuta Mountain (Appendix 1). Out of a total of 213 plant species, 204 were angiosperms (166 dicots and 38 monocots), one was gymnosperm and the remaining eight were pteridophytes (Table 2).  The highly represented families were Poaceae (19 species), Lamiaceae (14 species), Fabaceae (13 species), Asteraceae & Moraceae (12 species each), Solanaceae (9 species), Euphorbiaceae (8 species), Rosaceae (7 species), Ranunculaceae (6 species) & Malvaceae, Pinaceae and Pteridaceae (5 species each). Highly represented genera in the valley were Ficus (10 species), Euphorbia & Solanum (5 species each), Rubus (4 species), and Acacia & Datura (3 species each). A total of 95 plant species were herbaceous in habit, 48 were shrubby bushes, 54 were trees and 16 were climbers. Some snapshots of species diversity are given in Images 2 and 3.

Besides vascular plant diversity, this region also exhibits macrofungal diversity, of which some are used as food or medicine by the local inhabitants of the study area. While investigating, seven macro-fungi were documented from the study area that include Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P.Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Schizophyllum commune Fr. (Schizophyllaceae), Termitomyces heimii Natarajan (Lyophyllaceae), Macrolepiota procera Scop., Agaricus arvensis Schaeff., Calvatia gigantea (Batsch) Lloyd, and Bovista minor Morgan (all Agaricaceae members). The first two macro-fungi (Ganoderma lucidum and Schizophyllum commune) are used as medicine by the local people, whereas the remaining were recorded as being used as wild edible macro-fungi (Image 4).

 

Economically Valued Plants

Out of a total of 213 plant species collected from the area, 76.05% (162 spp.) are reported in literature as high valued medicinal plants (Samant et al. 1998; Bhatia et al. 2013, 2014; Gairola et al. 2014; Dutt et al. 2015). Some abundantly growing medicinal plants of Devi Pindiyan Valley and its associated mountain ranges include Achyranthes bidentata, Acacia modesta, Artemisia nilagirica, Berberis lycium, Bergenia pacumbis, Cissampelos pareira, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Colchicum luteum, Cryptolepis dubia, Datura innoxia, Holarrhena pubescens, Micromeria biflora, Mentha longifolia, Ocimum americanum, Plantago lanceolata, Sida rhombifolia, Valeriana jatamansi, Verbascum thapsus, Viola canescens,and Zanthoxylum armatum.

While gathering oral information from local people, 26 species were recorded as edible and consumed as wild leafy vegetables, wild fruits or seeds. Most abundantly growing plants under this category are Colocasia esculenta, Debregeasia longifolia, Ficus spicata, Mentha spicata, Morus alba, Murraya koenigii, Rubus ellipticus, Rubus niveus, Rumex hastatus, Zanthoxylum armatum and Ziziphus jujuba. The study area is composed of nearly 55 timber yielding plants, with Engelhardtia spicata, Ficus semicordata, Ficus racemosa, Mallotus philippensis, Kigelia africana, Melia azedarach, and Pinus roxburghii being the most dominant tree species. We also recorded 10 plants from the area as a source of dye such as Impatiens balsamina, Impatiens bicolor, Geranium nepalensis, Acacia catechu, and Pistacia chinensis (Figure 2).

 

Native and Non-Native Status

Of the total 213 investigated species, 124 species representing 58.22% are native to the Palaearctic Realm and remaining 89 species (41.78%) are non-native to India and adjoining areas (Appendix 1). They are either introduced, alien (invasive) or recorded from other regions as native plants. They are European, African, Australian, or tropical American origin plants escaped to have distribution in the study area (India) as invasive or were introduced sometime in history. A total of 32 species  (15.02%) are native to India or are exclusively endemic to the Himalayan regions. Common endemic species to Himalaya include Mimosa himalayana, Valeriana jatamansi, Neolitsea umbrosa, Engelhardtia spicata, Colchicum luteum, Isachne himalaica, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Ficus semicordata, Delphinium denudatum, Grewia optiva, Acacia modesta, Begonia picta, Heracleum candicans, Selinum vaginatum, and Euphorbia royleana.  About 0.93% species have nativity in Indo-Malayan regions.  There are several species which are of Chinese origin and have abundant growth in the study area includes Ficus sarmentosa, Hedychium spicatum, Pteris vittata, and Pistacia chinensis.

 

Threats and Conservation Perspectives

Human disturbance coupled with habitat fragmentation have been identified as a major cause of biodiversity loss in many hotspots. Destruction of forests has resulted in the degradation of the environment and habitat of native species of the state. The rich genetic diversity has been depleted and many plant species are facing the threat of extinction in their natural habitats. Expansion of developmental activities (road/dam/city construction), logging, mining and similar associated activities are major threats to plant and animal species. The conservation status of all collected and authenticated species were worked out following IUCN Red List website (www.iucnredlist.org), and out of a total of 213 species, 34 species have been categorized under one or other threat concern. Total 32 species were listed as Least Concern (LC) species, 1 species each were categorized under Vulnerable (V) category and Data Deficient (DD) and remaining 178 species were not assessed as per IUCN classification (Figure 3)

 

 

Discussion

 

The endemic species with limited geographical ranges are susceptible to extinction as they are extremely vulnerable to environmental changes, while widely distributed species can cope with the changing environment and anthropogenic disturbances (Rao et al. 2003). In this study, we reviewed for the first time, and presented the plant diversity of unexplored Devi Pindiyan Valley of Trikuta Hills in Shivalik Himalaya. In the diverse habitats of this valley, we recorded 213 vascular plants of 164 genera under 71 families, and seven macro-fungal genera belonging to four families, indicating that the flora of the surveyed region shows high diversity. In fact, while surveying and exploring the interior belts, we often found a large number of plant species from a certain small area, which were very different in habitat condition from their surroundings. In addition to these, we were able to mark wide variations in ecological conditions found within the explored area along with variations in altitudes. According to the Botanical Survey of India, Jammu & Kashmir in the western Himalaya is one such region which has been floristically under-explored (Dar et al. 2012), and the present finding helps to fill the data gap. Few research projects were previously conducted in the area, and one of them was of Kapur (1982), who studied the phytoecology and forest associations, but very little data on ecology was presented. Lesser known species outside their natural habitat are facing threats of existence seeing in vulnerable category and may slowly move towards the verge of extinction due to unabated anthropogenic activities such as deforestation and illicit extraction of valuable medicinal plants. Hence, such species need immediate conservation measures and research on ecological restoration. Owing to our extensive study efforts in the Devi Pindiyan, this documented research will provide a good notion of the plant diversity and reasons for conservation of this sacred place for the future.

 

 

Table1. Characterization of collecting sites from Devi Pindiyan Valley of Trikuta Hill, Shivalik Himalaya.

 

Survey sites (Date of collection)

Geographical coordinates

Habitat characterized

Latitude

Longitude

Elevation (m)

Site 1 (14 March 2017)

32.982o N

74.986o E

860

Tropical forests

Site 2 (19 August 2017)

32.987o N

74.987o E

1020

Mixed tropical and subtropical forests

Site 3 (19 August 2017)

32.994o N

74.990o E

1149

Mixed tropical and subtropical forests

Site 4 (28 April 2018)

32.999o N

74.989o E

1135

Mixed tropical and subtropical forests

Site 5 (28 April 2018)

33.004o N

74.993o E

1089

Mixed tropical and subtropical forests

Site 6 (14 September 2018)

33.010o N

74.995o E

1360

Mixed subtropical and temperate forests

 

 

Table 2. Classification of vascular plants distribution in Devi Pindiyan Valley.

Taxon

Family

Genus

Species

Total

Lycophytes and Ferns

5

6

8

8

Gymnosperms

1

1

1

1

Angiosperms

65

158

204

204

Monocotyledons

12

33

38

38

Dicotyledons

53

125

166

166

Total

71

165

213

213

 

 

 

For figures & images - - click here

 

 

References

 

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Bhatia, H., Y.P. Sharma, R.K. Manhas & K. Kumar (2014). Traditional phytoremedies for the treatment of menstrual disorders in district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 160: 202–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.11.041   

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Appendix 1. List of plants in Devi Pindiyan Valley of Trikuta Hills, Shivalik Himalaya.

 

 

Botanical name

Phenology period

Habit

IUCN status

Nativity status

Voucher no.

 

DICOTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ranunculaceae

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Clematis barbellata Edgew.

June–August

Climber

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm and in Himalaya

HBJU125

2.

Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

September–December

Climber

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU126

3.

Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson

May–September

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU151

4.

Ranunculus distans Royle

June–August

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU206

5.

Ranunculus muricatus L.

March–July

Herb

NA

Non-native to India, and native of Europe

HBJU276

6.

Thalictrum foliolosum DC.

August–December

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU226

 

Menispermaceae

 

 

 

 

 

7.

Cissampelos pareira L.

March–October

Climber

NA

Native to India

HBJU124

8.

Cocculus laurifolius DC.

March–August

Climber

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU127

 

Berberidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

9.

Berberis lycium Royle

April–June

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU112

 

Papaveraceae

 

 

 

 

 

10.

Fumaria indica Pugsley

March–July

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU178

 

Violaceae

 

 

 

 

 

11.

Viola odorata L.

April–September

Herb

NA

Non-native, introduced from Europe

HBJU290

12.

Viola canescens Wall.

March–July

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU288

 

Malvaceae

 

 

 

 

 

13.

Bombax ceiba L.

November–March

Tree

NA

Non-native to India and introduced

HBJU115

14.

Grewia asiatica L.

March–September

Tree

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU159

15.

Grewia optiva (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) J.R.Drumm. ex Burret

April–Septmber

Tree

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU184

16.

Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd.

December–July

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU203

17.

Sida rhombifolia L.

September–January

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, and native to New World (America & Oceania)

HBJU263

 

Linaceae

 

 

 

 

 

18.

Reinwardtia indica Dumort.

April–January

Shrub

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU246

 

Geraniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

19.

Geranium nepalense Sweet

April–October

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU156

20.

Geranium mascatense Boiss.

February–May

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Himalaya)

HBJU277

 

Balsaminaceae

 

 

 

 

 

21.

Impatiens balsamina L.

July–October

Herb

NA

Non-native to India, and native to tropical America

HBJU190

22.

Impatiens bicolor Royle

May–October

Herb

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU191

 

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

23.

Oxalis corniculata L.

February–October

Herb

NA

Non-native to India, and native of Europe

HBJU228

 

Rutaceae

 

 

 

 

 

24.

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa

October–January

Tree

NA

Non-native to India and introduced

HBJU107

25.

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

March–August

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU187

26.

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

April–October

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU239

 

Meliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

27.

Melia azedarach L.

March–October

Tree

LC

Non-native to India, and native of Bangladesh

HBJU180

28.

Toona ciliata M.Roem.

January–August

Tree

LC

Non-native to India

HBJU229

29.

Toona sinensis (AJuss.) M.Roem.

May–January

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU281

 

Rhamnaceae

 

 

 

 

 

30.

Rhamnus triquetra (Wall.) Brandis

July–September

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU247

31.

Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

May–October

Tree

LC

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU294

32.

Ziziphus oenopolia (L.) Mill.

August–December

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU295

 

Sapindaceae

 

 

 

 

 

33.

Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

June–October

Climber

NA

Non-native to India and invasive

HBJU149

34.

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq.

January–August

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU160

 

Anacardiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

35.

Cotinus coggygria Scop.

February–November

Shrub

LC

Non-native to India, and native of Southern Europe

HBJU140

36.

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

March–September

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU202

37.

Mangifera indica L.

March–September

Tree

DD

Native of Indo-Malaya region, planted

HBJU212

38.

Pistacia chinensis Bunge

March–November

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Western China)

HBJU233

 

Fabaceae

 

 

 

 

 

39.

Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.

April–September

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU101

40.

Acacia modesta Wall.

May–October

Tree

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU102

41.

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile

March–August

Tree

LC

Non-native to India and native of Tropical America

HBJU103

42.

Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn.

April–August

Climber

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU110

43.

Bauhinia variegata L.

February–July

Tree

LC

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU111

44.

Cassia fistula L.

April–July

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU119

45.

Indigofera cassioides DC.

January–June

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU163

46.

Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex Brandis

May–October

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU193

47.

Lespedeza gerardiana Wall. Ex Maxim.

September–December

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU175

48.

Mimosa himalayana Gamble

June–December

Shrub

NA

Endemic to Himalaya

HBJU183

49.

Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC.

March–August

Climber

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (India)

HBJU204

50.

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

October–March

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, and native to tropical South America

HBJU217

51.

Senna tora (L.) Roxb.

November–February

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, and native to tropical South America

HBJU218

 

Rosaceae

 

 

 

 

 

52.

Cotoneaster nummularius Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

May–October

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia, Himalaya)

HBJU132

53.

Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

October–March

Tree

LC

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU199

54.

Rubus ellipticus Sm.

March–May

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia, India)

HBJU210

55.

Rubus niveus Thunb.

May–September

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU250

56.

Rubus paniculatus Sm.

June–October

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU251

57.

Rubus rosifolius Sm.

March–July

Shrub

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU211

58.

Spiraea bella Sims

May–September

Shrub

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU224

 

Saxifragaceae

 

 

 

 

 

59.

Bergenia pacumbis (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) C.Y.Wu & J.T.Pan

June–August

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Himalaya)

HBJU146

 

Myrtaceae

 

 

 

 

 

60.

Psidium guajava L.

May–September

Tree

NA

Non-native, introduced from Europe

HBJU200

 

Lythraceae

 

 

 

 

 

61.

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

January–May

Shrub

LC

Native to Asia (Himalaya)

HBJU292

 

Onagraceae

 

 

 

 

 

62.

Oenothera rosea L'Hér. ex Aiton

May–December

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU225

 

Begoniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

63.

Begonia picta Sm.

July–September

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU278

 

Apiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

64.

Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC.

May–September

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU244

65.

Ligusticum elatum (Edgew.) C.B.Clarke

July–September

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU209

66.

Selinum vaginatum C.B.Clarke

June–October

Herb

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU260

 

Araliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

67.

Hedera helix L.

September–May

Climber

NA

Non-native to India, and native of Europe

HBJU185

 

Caprifoliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

68.

Valeriana jatamansi Jones

April–September

Herb

NA

Endemic to Himalaya

HBJU232

 

Adoxaceae

 

 

 

 

 

69.

Viburnum nervosum D.Don

April–October

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU286

 

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

70.

Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.

March–June

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU120

71.

Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser

June–November

Tree

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU312

72.

Spermadictyon suaveolens Roxb.

September–March

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, Native of Tropical America

HBJU223

73.

Wendlandia heynei (Schult.) Santapau & Merchant

March–August

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU236

 

Asteraceae

 

 

 

 

 

74.

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.

January–December

Herb

NA

Non-native, invasive to India and native from tropical America

HBJU105

75.

Artemisia nilagirica (C.B.Clarke) Pamp.

July–October

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU131

76.

Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff

January–December

Herb

NA

Non-native, invasive to India and native to tropical America

HBJU113

77.

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

June–October

Herb

NA

Non-native, invasive to India

HBJU123

78.

Erigeron bonariensis L.

May–October

Herb

NA

Non-native, invasive to India

HBJU144

79.

Inula cuspidata (Wall. ex DC.) C.B. Clarke

June–August

Shrub

NA

Native to Himalaya

HBJU164

80.

Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal

June–October

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU172

81.

Parthenium hyterophorus L.

April–August

Herb

NA

Non-native and invasive to India, and native of Tropical America

HBJU253

82.

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

February–September

Herb

NA

Non-native, Mediterranean and Africa

HBJU264

83.

Sonchus arvensis L.

July–September

Herb

NA

Non-native to India, and native of Europe

HBJU272

84.

Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.

May–December

Herb

NA

Non-native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU273

85.

Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund

September–March

Herb

NA

Non-native, introduced from Mediterranean and Africa

HBJU268

 

Oleaceae

 

 

 

 

 

86.

Jasminum grandiflorum L.

August–January

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Southeastern Asia)

HBJU168

87.

Ligustrum nepalense Wall.

April–July

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU177

88.

Olea paniculata R.Br.

April–November

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm (Himalaya)

HBJU313

 

Apocyanaceae

 

 

 

 

 

89.

Carissa spinarum L.

April–June

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, probably native of South Africa

HBJU118

90.

Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R.Almeida

March–November

Climber

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU133

91.

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don

April–December

Tree

LC

Non-native to India, and native of Africa

HBJU188

 

Boraginaceae

 

 

 

 

 

92.

Cynoglossum wallichii G.Don

May–August

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU135

93.

Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vahl ex Hornem.) Thunb. ex Lehm.

April–October

Herb

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU136

94.

Ehretia acuminata R.Br.

March–May

Tree

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU157

 

Convolvulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

95.

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth

June–September

Climber

NA

Non-native and invasive to India

HBJU165

96.

Ipomoea calophylla Fenzl

August–November

Climber

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU279

 

Solanaceae

 

 

 

 

 

97.

Datura innoxia Mill.

May–October

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, and native to tropical America

HBJU280

98.

Datura metel L.

March–December

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, and native to tropical America

HBJU283

99.

Datura stramonium L.

June–November

Shrub

NA

Non-native, introduced from Europe

HBJU148

100.

Physalis minima L.

August–October

Herb

LC

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU195

101.

Solanum americanum Mill.

June–January

Herb

NA

Non-native to India, and native of tropical America

HBJU220

102.

Solanum hazenii Britton

January–December

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU221

103.

Solanum torvum Sw.

April–July

Shrub

NA

Non-native to India, and native of West Indies

HBJU222

104.

Solanum villosum Mill.

July–November

Herb

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU284

105.

Solanum virginianum L.

May–November

Herb

NA

Non-native to India

HBJU271

 

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

 

 

 

106.

Buddleja crispa Benth.

February–August

Shrub

NA

Native to Palaearctic realm

HBJU116

107.

Verbascum thapsus L.

June–October

Herb

NA

Non-native to India, native of Europe

HBJU274

 

Bignoniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

108.

Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don

May–August

Tree

Vu

Non-native, introduced from America

HBJU167

109.

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

April–October

Tree

LC

Non-native, introduced from Europe