Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 March 2019 | 11(5): 13611–13616

 

Weed diversity in rice crop fields of Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India

 

Yadvinder Singh& Rai Singh 2

 

1,2 Department of Botany and Environmental Science, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab 140406, India.

1 yadbotany@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 raisingh.bot@gmail.com

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4508.11.5.13611-13616   

 

Editor: P. Lakshminarasimhan, Botanical Survey of India, Pune, India. Date of publication: 26 March 2019 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: #4508 | Received 24 August 2018 | Final received 12 December 2018 | Finally accepted 04 March 2019

 

Citation: Singh, Y. & R. Singh (2019). Weed diversity in rice crop fields of Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(5): 13611–13616. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4508.11.5.13611-13616

 

Copyright: © Singh & Singh 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to the Vice-Chancellor, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, for providing necessary facilities and to Dr. M.I.S. Saggoo, professor and former head, Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala, for his suggestions to initiate the work.

 

 

Abstract: A total of 31 species of weeds belonging to 11 families was collected from rice fields in Fatehgarh District of Punjab between June and November 2017.  Of the 31 species, 15 were dicots and 16 were monocots.  Of the 11 families, six (Portulacaceae, Lythraceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Polygonaceae, and Commelinaceae) were represented by only one species each.  Poaceae was the largest family represented by 10 species, followed by Asteraceae and Cyperaceae with five species each.  The largest genus was Cyperus withfour species, followed by Euphorbia, Echinochloa,and Eragrostis withtwo species each.  Of the 31 weed species, 29 were annual and only two, Cyperus rotundus and Parthenium hysterophorus, were perennials.  More detailed survey work is required on a regular basis to identify possible problematic weeds and new or improved control measures.

 

Keywords: Documentation, ethnobotany, identification.

 

 

Researches indicate that more than 10% of the global agriculture production is reduced as a result of the competition of weeds with crop species mainly for space, nutrients, light, and water (Parker & Fryer 1975).  Weeds tolerate adverse edaphic, climatic, and biotic factors as compared to other plants.  They have characteristic modifications that help in their perpetuation, multiplication, dissemination, stabilization, and overall adaptation (Vasic et al. 2012).  Many weeds bear special structural modifications to reduce water loss during drought conditions, such as thick cuticle, sunken stomata, and waxy coating (Ram & Gupta 1997).  The root system of Convolvulus microphyllus is coiled to increase its surface area and length for increased absorption efficiency.  Grass such as Cyanodon dactylon and sedges like Cyperus spp. are known to survive under very dry conditions.  Some weeds like Parthenium hysterophorus are photo-periodically and thermo-periodically neutral.  Parthenium hysterophorus contains allelochemicals that inhibit the germination of the seeds of other plants; an invasive, it grows mainly in wastelands, and is reported to infest crop fields (Kumar & Varshney 2010). 

For better management of weeds, it is necessary to study their morphology, physiology, systematics, ecology, and ethnobotany.  The study of weed plants also provides knowledge about their importance as some of them have a large number of ethnobotanic uses and can be used to develop new products for pharmaceutic and food industries (Kendler et al. 1992).  Eclipta alba, a common weed of the Punjab plains, is widely used as a medicinal plant.  Echinochloa crus-galli, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Amaranthus viridis,and Poa annua are commonly used as fodder for animals.  Some weed species are threatened and their purging affects the biologic diversity of the area.  Biodiversity is strongly related to the survival and function of the ecosystem (Hooper et al. 2005).  Integrated management method is very helpful to control weeds without loss of biodiversity.

Many reports are available on the flora of Punjab (Sharma 1990; Sidhu & Singh 1993; Kaur et al. 2017).  No report, however, is available on the diversity of weeds in the rice fields of Fatehgarh Sahib District in Punjab.  The main objective of this study was to gain knowledge about the availability of the total number of weeds during the rice season of the area.  Identification and documentation of weed species from rice fields will be helpful to prepare effective strategies for weed management. 

 

Materials and Methods

Study area                                                                  

Collection of weed plants was done from seven rice growing regions (Sirhind, BassiPathana, MandiGobindgarh, Khamanon, Charnarthal, Amloh, and Chunnikalan) of Fatehgarh Sahib (Fig. 1) District in Punjab.  The selected sites were surveyed periodically for the collection of weeds.  The specimens were collected from within as well as the edges of crop fields.  Local people were interviewed to obtain the common or vernacular names of weeds.

 

Collection of weeds

The study was conducted during the rice growing season of 2017, i.e., between June and November, to explore the weed diversity of the selected area.  The standard methods for collection of plant specimens and preservation and preparation of herbarium (Jain & Rao 1977) were followed.  Small herbs were collected as a whole with roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits, while larger shrubs were sampled as twigs that included stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits.

Herbarium preparation

After collection, plant specimens were dried using blotters and then pressed using a herbarium press.  The blotting papers were changed at regular intervals.  After proper drying and pressing, the plant specimens were mounted on sheets for preparation of herbarium specimens.  Herbarium sheets were protected against damages from insect and fungal attack by poisoning them with a saturated solution of mercuric chloride in ethyl alcohol.  Naphthalene balls were also placed to protect the specimens from insects.

Identification

The collected plant specimens were identified using the available literature, i.e., Bentham & Hooker (1876), Sidhu & Singh (1993), and Kaur et al. (2017), and various websitesThe herbarium specimens of identified plant species were arranged on the basis of plant classification of Bentham & Hooker (1876) and kept in the Herbarium, Department of Botany and Environmental Science, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib.

 

Results and Discussion

During the present study, a total of 31 weed species were collected and identified from rice crop fields of selected localities in the district of Fatehgarh Sahib (Table 1; Images 1 & 2).  Collected weed species belong to 25 genera under 11 families of angiosperms (Table 2).  Of the 31 species, 15 belong to dicot families (Potulacaeae, Lythraceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae, and Euphorbiaceae) and 16 belong to monocot families (Commelinaceae, Cyperaceae, and Poaceae).  Only one representative species per family was found for six families, namely, Portulacaceae, Lythraceae, Solanaceae, Schrophulariaceae, Polygonaceae, and Commeliaceae.  Poaceae was the largest family containing 10 species, followed by Asteraceae and Cyperaceae with five species each.  The largest genera were Cyperus represented by four species, followed by Euphorbia, Echinochloa,and Eragrostis with two species each.  The genera such as Portulaca, Ammannia, Eclipta, Parthenium, Tridax, Vernonia, Vicoa, Physalis, Mazus, Polygonum, Amaranthus, Digera, Phyllanthus, Commelina, Fimbristylis, Digitaria, Paspalum, Ischaemum, Setaria, Acrachne,and Dactyloctenium wererepresented by one species each (Table 1).  Of the 31 weed species, 29 were annuals and two species, namely, Cyperus rotundus and Parthenium hysterophorus, were perennials (Table 1).  Manandhar et al. (2007) reported 52 weed species (22 dicots and 25 monocots) belonging to 32 genera under 15 families in the paddy fields of Kirtipur, central Nepal.  Hakim et al. (2011) recorded 39 weed species belonging to 15 families, of which 23 were annuals and 16 were perennials, 10 grassy weeds, nine sedges, and 20 broad-leaved weeds associated with rice crop in the coastal region of peninsular Tanjong Karang in West Malaysia. 

During the present study, Cyperus rotundus was reported from all the localities of rice crop fields.  Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia microphylla,and Tridax procumbens were commonly found on the bunds of the crop fields.  Cyperus iria, C. difformis, C. compressus, Ammannia baccifera,and Eclipta alba were found in the crop fields.  These plant species commonly occur in aquatic habitats.  Rabbani & Bajwa (2001) surveyed the rice fields of five districts of Punjab, namely, Gujarnawala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Kasur, and Sheikhupura, and reported Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, C. difformis, Echinochloa colona, and E. glabrescens as highly abundant and widely distributed throughout the surveyed areas.  Parthenium hysterophorus was also found on the edges of the studied rice fields.  There are reports that Parthenium hysterophorus has become a problem in crop fields in India (Evans 1997).  Parthenium hysterophorus was reported in rice fields from different districts of India (Oudhia 2000).  Cyperus rotundus is a common weed species in the study area.  This species attains dominance in cultivated land and poses a serious problem for rice crops.  It appears immediately after rice sowing and competes heavily with the crop for nutrients and water.  Cyperus rotundus is recognized as the world’s worst weed (Holm et al. 1977).  In the Indo-Gangetic plains, adoption of zero tillage has resulted in an increase in the population of globally-significant perennial weeds such as Purple Nut Sedge Cyperus rotundus and Bermuda Grass Cynodon dactylon (Malik & Kumar 2014).  Some of the weeds reported from the study area also have some positive aspects.  Eclipta alba is good for hair and is used for commercial purposes nowadays.  Cyperus rotundus, C. iria, C. difformis, Fimbristylis tenera, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colona, E. crus-galli, Paspalum conjugatum, Eragrostis japonica, Dactyloctenium aegyptium,and Acrachne spp. are commonly used as fodder for animals.  Amaranthus viridis is used as a vegetable commonly called ‘Sagg’ by local people.  Some previous studies also reported medicinal, industrial, and allelopathic uses of obnoxious weeds (Chopra et al. 1956; Memon & Shahani 1986; Hassan & Marwat 2001; Ibrar et al. 2003).

 

Conclusion

The present study was a first from the region to explore and identify the weeds present in rice crop fields.  This study will help the farmers and agriculturists of the study area to identify weeds and thus help in planning a suitable strategy for their control.

 

 

Table 1. Taxonomic position, life form, and habit of weeds identified in the study from rice crop fields in Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India.

 

Botanical name

Family

Local name

Life form

Habit

Image

Voucher number

Portulaca oleracea L.

Portulacaceae

 

Annual

Herb

1a

WU-101

Ammannia baccifera L.

Lythraceae

 

Annual

Herb to shrub

1b

WU-102

Eclipta alba L.

Asteraceae

Bhringraj

Annual

Herb

1c

WU-103

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Gajjer Ghass

Perennial

Herb to shrub

1d

WU-104

Tridax procumbens L.

 

Annual

Herb

1e

WU-105

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

 

Annual

Herb

1f

WU-106

Vicoa indica (L.) DC.

 

Annual

Herb to shrub

1g

WU-107

Physalis minima L.

Solanaceae

Jungli rusbhari

Annual

Herb

1h

WU-108

Mazus japonicus (Thunb) Kuntze

Scrophulariaceae

 

Annual

Herb

1i

WU-109

Polygonum plebeium R. Br.

Polygonaceae

 

Annual

Herb

1j

WU-110

Amaranthus viridis L.

Amaranthaceae

Chauli

Annual

Herb

1k

WU-111

Digera arvensis Forssk.

Tandla

Annual

Herb

1l

WU-112

Euphorbia hirta L.

Euphorbiaceae

Dhohdak

Annual

Herb

1m

WU-113

E. microphylla Lam.

 

Annual

Herb

1n

WU-114

Phyllanthus niruri L.

Hazardani

Annual

Herb

1o

WU-115

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelinaceae

 

Annual

Herb

1p

WU-116

Cyperus rotundus L.

Cyperaceae

Murk

Perennial

Herb

1q

WU-117

C. iria L.

Chhatriwaladila

Annual

Herb

1r

WU-118

C. difformis L.

Mothi

Annual

Herb

1s

WU-119

C. compressus. L.

Motha

Annual

Herb

1t

WU-120

Fimbristylis tenera Schult.

 

Annual

Herb

2a

WU-121

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

Poaceae

TatriGhas

Annual

Herb

2b

WU-122

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

Swanki

Annual

Herb

2c

WU-123

E. crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv

Swank

Annual

Herb

2d

WU-124

Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius

 

Annual

Herb

2e

WU-125

Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.

 

Annual

Herb

2f

WU-126

E. tenella (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

Chirian da dana

Annual

Herb

2g

WU-127

Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.

Kanki

Annual

Herb

2h

WU-128

Setaria glauca (L) P. Beauv.

 

Annual

Herb

2i

WU-129

Acrachne sp.

 

Annual

Herb

2j

WU-130

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willld.

Madhana

Annual

Herb

2k

WU-131

 

 

Table 2. Taxonomic data of weed plants identified from rice crop fields in Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India, with their families, genera, and species.

 

Family

Genera

Species

Portulacaceae

01

01

Lythraceae

01

01

Asteraceae

05

05

Solanaceae

01

01

Scrophulariaceae

01

01

Amaranthaceae

02

02

Polygonaceae

01

01

Euphorbiaceae

02

03

Commelinaceae

01

01

Cyperaceae

02

05

Poaceae

08

10

Total

25

31

 

For figure / image – click here

 

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