Journal of Threatened Taxa | | 26 November 2019 | 11(14): 14845–14861




A checklist of rust fungi from Himachal Pradesh, India


Ajay Kumar Gautam 1 & Shubhi Avasthi 2


1 School of Agriculture, Abhilashi University, Chail Chowk, Tehsil Chachyot, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175028, India.

2 School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh 474001, India.

1 (corresponding author), 2




Abstract: An updated analysis of the diversity of rust fungi in Himachal Pradesh is provided herein as a product of field surveys, of mycological analysis, and of all forms of published documentation and literature.  The results of all forms of analysis revealed that Himachal Pradesh has 167 species of rust fungi belonging to the class Pucciniomycetes.  The class is represented by 11 families, 23 genera with 167 species.  The Pucciniaceae (96 species) followed by Phragmidiaceae (14 species) are the largest families of rust fungi reported from the state.  Rest of the families were found associated with 1–10 species of rust fungi.  The rust fungi (19 species) with uncertain placement are placed in incertae sedis.  The rust genera reported from Himachal Pradesh so far are Aecidium, Chrysomyxa, Coleosporium, Frommea, Gymnosporangium, Kuehneola, Kweilingia, Melampsora, Monosporidium, Ochrospora, Peridermium, Phakopsora, Phragmidium, Pileolaria, Puccinia, Pucciniastrum, Pucciniostele, Ravenelia, Skierka, Uredinopsis, Uredo, Urocystis, and Uromyces.


Keywords: Basidiomycota, checklist, Himachal Pradesh, Pucciniales, Pucciniomycetes.






Editor: R.K. Verma, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, India.      Date of publication: 26 November 2019 (online & print)


Manuscript details: #4238 | Received 07 May 2018 | Final received 18 October 2019 | Finally accepted 27 October 2019


Citation: Gautam, A.K. & S. Avasthi (2019). A checklist of rust fungi from Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(14): 14845–14861.


Copyright: © Gautam & Avasthi 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.


Funding: None.


Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Author details: Dr. Ajay Kumar Gautam PhD, is serving at School of Agriculture, Abhilashi University Mandi (H.P.). His research is focused on fungal diversity of north-western Himalaya. Dr. Shubhi Avasthi has obtained her PhD from Jiwaji University Gwalior. Presently she is working as guest Faculty at School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University Gwalior.


Author contribution: AKG performed the survey, data collection and finalized the manuscript. SA compiled the published literature and contributed in manuscript writing.


Acknowledgements: Authors are grateful to their respective organizations for providing the necessary laboratory facilities and valuable support during the study. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and suggestions.






Rust fungi are highly specialized obligate plant parasites having several unique morphological and microscopic features.  These fungi commonly appear as yellow orange or brown powder on a variety of host plants and plant parts.  Unlike other plant pathogens, rusts usually affect healthy and vigorously growing plants; the infection is limited to plant parts, such as leaves, petioles, tender shoots, stem, and fruits.  The group is considered as one of the most harmful plant pathogens in agriculture, horticulture and forestry.  These fungi are of major concern because they act as limiting factors for the successful cultivation, plantation and growth of agricultural crops and forestry plants.  A wider diversity and broader host range is exhibited by this fungal group and their infection is not only limited to agricultural crops but also non-agricultural plants including medicinal herbs, shrubs, trees, and even weeds.  An estimated 168 rust genera and approximately 7,000 species exist on various plant hosts, more than half of which belong to the genus Puccinia (Mohanan 2010).

Rust fungi show unique systematic characteristics among all fungal groups.  A single species may produce up to five morphologically and cytologically distinct spore-producing structures, viz., spermagonia, aecia, uredinia, telia, and basidia, in successive stages of reproduction during the infection process.  The presence of these successive stages may vary from species to species.  To initiate and develop infection, rusts require an average temperature up to 35°C along with 50–60 % relative humidity.  The rust infected plants may appear stunted, chlorotic (yellowed), or otherwise discoloured, whereas, disease symptoms includes coloured pustules, witches brooms, stem canker, hypertrophy of the affected tissues or formation of galls (Cummins & Hiratsuka 2003). Unlike other fungi, rusts exhibit one of the most important characteristics of their exceptionally high degree of host specificity. 

Among all reported rust fungi, some are among agriculture’s most destructive and devastating pathogens, causing diseases such as wheat stem rust, wheat yellow (stripe) rust, Asian soybean rust, coffee rust and many more.  These rust fungi cause annual crop losses in billions every year worldwide.  This loss can be greater in developing world where growers are not aware about diseases caused by rust fungi and often cannot afford fungicides.  Owing to their economic importance, the rusts have been studied extensively in regular mycological surveys in Himachal Pradesh, but no single-source compiled literature is available.  Therefore, this study facilitates the access to scattered Himalayan literature with reference to rust fungi to the students and plant pathologists of national and international community.



Study area


Himachal Pradesh is one of the northern states of India that lies between 30.377– 32.21 North and 75.74 – 79.07 East.  It is a mountainous state with very high mountains to grasslands in plain (Figure 1).  Great variations in elevation ranging from about 350m (1,148 ft) to 7,000m (22,966 ft) are found in the state.  The variations are also observed in the climatic conditions.  Hot and sub-humid tropical conditions were found in the southern tracts while, cold, alpine and glacial conditions in the northern and eastern mountain ranges with more elevation.  The variability in rainfall was observed in the range of 1,500–3,000 mm.  These variations in geo-climatic conditions of the state lead to greater biodiversity in the state.  A total 66.52% of the area is covered with very dense evergreen to deciduous forests types.  While, alpine shrub and meadows are found distributed in the west and northeastern Himalaya; alders, birches, rhododendrons, and moist alpine shrubs are regional vegetation.  The plant pathogens including bacteria, fungi and viruses are also found due to these changeable geographical and climatic conditions of the state which are quite favourable for their growth and development.



Materials and methods


The information on rust fungi was gathered by investigating the following data sources: (1) mycological survey conducted on rust fungi from Himachal Pradesh during the years 2014 to 2018, and (2) all forms of published documentation and literature (Bilgrami et al. 1991; Jamaluddin et al. 2004).  The names of some taxon in the obtained data have been replaced by currently accepted names as they were of out-of-date.  The current usage of names was checked using the Index Fungorum ( to adopt the generic and specific taxonomy in Species Fungorum (

The plant samples found infected with rust fungi were collected during a mycological survey of various localities of Himachal Pradesh.  Field observations of rust fungi on host plants and their photographs were taken in natural conditions.  Collected specimens were packed in paper bags and taken to the laboratory for further analysis.  A few disease samples were used for morphological analysis of the rust fungi and the rest of the materials were dried for future microscopic studies.  The air dried specimens were preserved in standard size herbarium packets and deposited at the Abhilashi University Mycological Herbarium (AUMH).

The microscopic mounts were prepared from fresh samples by brushing the rust powder into a drop of distilled water and lactophenol on microscopic slides, which were covered with cover slip and gently heated. The microscopic slides were analysed for spore dimensions like size, shape and ornamentations.

Both macro- and micro-morphological characters obtained from the laboratory were only used for taxonomic studies of the collected fungi.  The fungal specimens were identified and their distribution records were checked by using standard literature (Cummins & Hiratsuka 2003; Mukerji & Manoharachary 2010). Illustrations are photographed under microscope equipped with digital camera.





As per the results obtained in the present study and from all sources of information, Himachal Pradesh has 167 species of rust fungi belonging to 23 genera and 11 families (Table 1).  The largest family is Pucciniaceae (95 species) followed by Phragmidiaceae (14 species).  Other families were reported to have species of rust fungi up to ten.  However, 19 species of rust fungi with uncertain placement are placed in taxonomic group incertae sedis. Aecidium, Chrysomyxa, Coleosporium, Frommea, Gymnosporangium, Kuehneola, Kweilingia, Melampsora, Monosporidium, Ochrospora, Peridermium, Phakopsora, Phragmidium, Pileolaria, Puccinia, Pucciniastrum, Pucciniostele, Ravenelia, Skierka, Uredinopsis, Uredo, Urocystis, and Uromyces are the rust genera reported so far from Himachal Pradesh.

Present studies revealed that 170 plant species belonging to 52 families were found infected with rust fungi throughout the state.  Thirty-five hosts of family Poaceae were highest to be found infected with these fungi followed by Ranunculaceae (16), Rosaceae (15), Asteraceae (11), Polygonaceae (7), Fabaceae, Salicaceae, Acanthaceae & Lamicaeae (6 each), Pinnaceae & Apiaceae (5 each), Rubiaceae (4), Saxifragaceae, Cyperaceae & Euphorbiaceae (3 each), and Berberidiaceae, Geraniaceae, Linaceae & Zinziberaceae (2 each).  The rest of the plant species were reported to be infected with a single rust fungus.  The area-wise results revealed that most of the rust fungi (about 127) were reported from Shimla and nearby regions followed by Solan (22), Kullu (18), Kangra (9), Chamba & Mandi (7 each), Lahul & Spiti (4), and Kinnaur & Bilaspur (1 each).


The checklist of rust fungi from Himachal Pradesh, a hilly state of northern India.



Basidiomycota Whittaker ex Moore

Pucciniomycetes Pucciniomycetes R. Bauer, Begerow, J.P. Samp., M. Weiss & Oberw.

Pucciniales Clem. & Shear


1. Family: Coleosporiaceae Dietel.

Genus: Chrysomyxa Unger., Beitr. vergleich. Pathologie: 24 (1840)

Type species: Chrysomyxa abietis (Wallr.) Unger (1840)

Chrysomyxa deformans (Diet.) Jacz., (Dietal 1890)

On Pinaceae—leaves of Picea morinda

Distribution: Shimla & Dalhausie

Chrysomyxa piceae Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Pinaceae—leaves of Picea morinda

Distribution: Narkanda & Mashobra

Chrysomyxa himalensis Barclay, (Butler 1905)

On Ericaceae—leaves of Rhododendron arboreum

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Coleosporium Lév., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 8: 373 (1847)

Type species: Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Lév. (1849)

Coleosporium barclayense Bagchee, (Bagchee 1950; Sehgal et al. 1989; Puri 1955)

On Pinaceae—Fallen needles of Pinus roxburghii and Pinus excelsa

Distribution: Kullu and Shimla 

Coleosporium campanulae (Pers.) Tul., (Barclay 1890; Sehgal et al. 1989)

On Campanulaceae—Leaves of Campanula colorata, needles of Pinus roxburghii

Distribution: Kasauli and Shimla

Coleosporium clematidis Barclay, (Barkley 1856; Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Ranunculaceae—leaves of Clematis montana and Clematis buchnania

Distribution: Shimla

Coleosporium leptodermidis (Barclay) P. Syd. & Syd., (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Ranunculaceae—leaves of Clematismontana

Distribution: Shimla

Coleosporium plectranthi Barclay, (Cummins 1943)

On Lamiaceae—leaves of Plectranthus geradianus

Distribution: Shimla

Coleosporium senecionis (Pers.) Fr., (Sydow & Mitter 1933)

On Asteraceae—leaves of Senecio graciliforus

Distribution: Shimla


2. Family: Cronartiaceae Dietel.

Genus: Peridermium (Link) J.C. Schmidt & Kunze,

Type species:  Peridermium californicum Arthur & F. Kern (1914)

Peridermium brevius (Barclay) Sacc., (Barclay 1890)

On Pinaceae—Neeles of Pinus excelsa

Distribution: Shimla

Peridermium cedri (Barclay) Sacc., (Barclay 1890)

On Pinaceae—neeles of Cedrus libani var. deodar

Distribution: Shimla 

Peridermium malayense Bagchee, (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Pinaceae—branches of Pinuslongifolia

Distribution: Shimla 

Peridermium orientale Cooke., (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Pinaceae—Needles of Pinus longofolia

Distribution: Shimla, Kangra, Kasauli (Solan)

Peridermium piceae (Barclay) Sacc., (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Pinaceae—leaves of Picea morinda

Distribution: Shimla

Peridermium thomsonii (Berk.) Berk.., (Cooke 1878)

On Pinaceae—leaves of Picea morinda

Distribution: Mahasu (Shimla), Kullu


3. Family: Melampsoraceae Dietel.

Genus: Melampsora Castagne (Image 1)

Type species: Melampsora euphorbiae (Ficinus & C. Schub.) Castagne (1843)


Melampsora ciliata Barclay, (Barclay 1891, Khan et al. 2004)

On Salicaceaeon leaves of Populus ciliata

Distribution: Shimla

Melampsora populnea (Pers.) P. Karst., (Syn. Melampsora aecidioides (DC) Schroet., Melampsora rostrupii G. Wagner)  (Barclay 1891; Butler & Bisby 1931; Cummins 1943; Sharma & Sharma 2000)

On Salicaceae—on leaves of Populus alba, Populus ciliata

Distribution: Shimla

Melampsora euphorbiae (Ficinus & C. Schub.) Castagne, (Syn. Melampsora helioscopiae (Pers.) Vint.) (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Euphorbiaceae—Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild. Ex. Klotz. and Euphorbia helioscopia

Distribution: Kangra

Melampsora hypericorum (DC.) J. Schröt., (Patil & Nayar 1936)

On Hypericaceae—leaves of Hypericum sp.

Distribution: Shimla

Melampsora caprearum Thüm., (syn. Melampsora laricis-caprearum Kleb.) (Sydow & Butler 1907)

On Salicaceae—leaves of Salix daphnoides and Salix elegans

Distribution: Dalhausie (Chamba) and Shimla

Melampsora lini (Ehrenb.) Lév., (Mishra 1963b, Mishra & Prasada 1966)

on Linaceae—leaves and stem of Linum mysorense and Linum grandiflorum.

Distribution: Flowerdale, Shimla

Melampsora medusae Thum., (Paul et al. 2004).

On Salicaceae—leaves of Populus deltoids

Distribution: Kangra

Melampsora oblonga Bagchee, (Ranadive et al. 2012).

On Pinaceae—leaves of Pinus excelsa

Distribution: Mandi (Central H.P.)

Melampsora salicis-albae Kleb., (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Salicaceae—Leaves of Salix alba

Distribution: Suket, Mandi

Melampsora rostrupii G. H. Wagner, (Syn. M. accidioides, M. populnea) (Rehill & Puri 1980) 

On Salicaceae—leaves of Populus alba

Distribution: Shimla.


Genus: Ochrospora Diet.

Type species: Ochrospora sorbi (G. Winter) Dietel (

Ochrospora sorbi (Oudem) Diet., (Arthur & Cummins 1933)

On Ranunculaceae—Anemone sp.

Distribution: Alwas (Chamba)


4. Family: Phakopsoraceae Cummins & Y. Hirats. f., 

Genus: Monosporidium Barclay

Type species: Monosporidium euphorbiae Barclay ex Sacc. (1891)

Monosporidium andrachnes Barclay, (Barclay1890)

On Phyllanthaceae—leaves of Andrachne cordifolia,

Distribution: Shimla & Kasuli (Solan)

Monosporidium euphorbiae Barclay ex Sacc., (Barclay 1890)

On Euphorbiaceae—leaves of Euphorbia pilosa

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Kweilingia Teng

Type species: Kweilingia bambusae (Teng) Teng (1940)

Kweilingia divina (Syd.) Buriticá (Gautam & Avasthi 2018)

On Poaceae—leaves of Dendroclamus strictus

Distribution: Bilaspur


Genus: Phakopsora Dietel

Type species: Phakopsora punctiformis (Barclay & Dietel) Dietel (1898)

Phakopsora cronartiiformis Dietel, (Butler 1912)

On Vitaceaeleaves of Vitis himalayana

Distribution: Nachar, bashahr (Shimla)

Phakopsora punctiformis (Barclay & Dietel) Dietel, (Dietal 1890)

On Rubiaceae—leaves of Galium aparine

Distribution: Shimla      


Genus: Pucciniostele Tranzschel & K.L. Kom.

Type species: Pucciniostele clarkiana (Barclay) Tranzschel & K.L. Kom. (1899)

Pucciniostele clarkiana (Barclay) Tranzschel & K.L. Kom., (Barclay 1890)

On Saxifragaceae—leaves of Astilbe rivularis

Distribution: Shimla


5. Family: Phragmidiaceae Corda

Genus: Frommea Arthur

Type species: Frommea obtusa (F. Strauss) Arthur (1917)

Frommeella tormentillae (Fuckel) U. Braun, (syn. Frommea obtusa (Str.) Arth.)

(Godre & Patwardhan 1965)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Potentilla fragariae

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Kuehneola Magnus

Type species: Kuehneola albida (J.G. Kühn) Magnus (1898)

Kuehneola loeseneriana (Henn.) H.S. Jacks. & Holw., (syn. Puccinia arthraxonis (P. Henn.) Syd., P. Syd. & E.J. Butler, (Golatkar 1976; Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Arthraxon prionodes

Distribution: Kasauli Solan (H.P.).


Genus: Phragmidium Link (Image 2)      

Type species: Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers.) Schltdl. (1824)

Phragmidium kamtschatkae (H.W. Anderson) Arthur & Cummins, (syn. Pucciniaroseae Barclay; Trolliomyces rosae (Barclay) Ulbrich, Teloconia rosae (Barclay) Syd.) (Mundkar 1938; Pandotra & Ganguly 1964; Ulbrich 1939)

On Rosaceae—leaves and branches of Rosa macrophylla

Distribution: Shimla

Phragmidium barclayi Dietel, (Sydow & Butler 1907)

‎On Rosaceae—leaves of Rubus lasiocarpus

Distribution: Shimla

Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers.) Schltdl., (syn. Phragmidium disciflorum (Tode) James.)(Cooke 1978)

On Rosaceae—Rosa sp.

Distribution: Kalatop forest, Chamba

Phragmidium incompletum Barclay, (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Rubus paniculatus

Distribution: Shimla

Phragmidium kamtschatke (Anders.) Arthur & Cummins, (Pandotra & Gaungly 1964)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Rosa macrophylla

Distribution: Narkanda, Shimla

Phragmidium laceianum Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Potentilla argyrophylla

Distribution: Narkanda, Bushahr (Shimla), Kullu

Phragmidium nepalense Barclay (Barclay 1891)

On Rosaceae—on leaves of Potentilla nepalensis,

Distribution: Mathiana, Shimla

Phragmidium octoloculare Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Rubus rosaefolius

Distribution: Shimla

Phragmidium quinqueloculare Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Rubus biflorus

Distribution: Shimla

Phragmidium rose-moschatae Dietel, (Mitter & Tandon 1938)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Rosa moschata

Distribution: Shimla & Kasauli


6. Family: Pileolariaceae Cummins & Y. Hirats.

Genus: Pileolaria Castagne (Image 3)     

Type species: Pileolaria terebinthi (DC.) Castagne (1842)

Pileolaria indica Syd., (Sydow 1938)

On Anacardiaceae—leaves of Pistacia integerrima

Distribution: Wangtu, Bushahr (Shimla)

Pileolaria pistaciae F. L. Tai & C. T. Wei, (Gautam & Avasthi 2017b)

On Anacardiaceae—leaves of Pistacia integerrima

Distribution: Balt (Mandi)


Genus: Skierka Racib. (Image 4)

Type species: Skierka canarii Racib. (1900)

Skierka himalayensis A. K. Gautam & S. Avasthi, (Gautam & Avasthi 2017b)

On Anacardiaceaeleaves of Pistacia integerrima

Distribution: Mandi


7. Family: Pucciniaceae Chevall.

Genus: Gymnosporangium R. Hedw. ex DC.,

Type species: Gymnosporangium fuscum DC. (1805)

Gymnosporangium cunninghamianum Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Pyrus pashia and Pyrus vasiocola

On Cupressaceae—Cupressus torulosa

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Puccinia Pers. (Images 5–11)     

Type species: Puccinia graminis Pers. (1794)

Puccinia agrostidis Plowr., (Barclay 1891)

On Ranunculaceae—Aquilegia vulgaris

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia ahmadiana Syd., (Sydow 1938)

On Asteraceae—Pterotheca falconeri

Distribution: Puti Ruhi, Lahul, Kullu Valley of Himachal Pradesh.

Puccinia porri (Sowerby) G. Winter, (syn. Puccinia allii (DC.) F. Rud.) (Butler & Bisby 1931; Singh & Sharma 1977, Bharat & Gupta 2011)

On Amaryllidaceae—Allium sativum

Distribution: Kullu, Shimla

Puccinia andropogonis Schwein., (Barclay 1890)

On Poaceae—Andropogon tristis

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia graminis Pers., (syn. Puccinia anthistiriae Barclay) (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Poaceae—Anthistiria anathera

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia apii Desm., (Barclay 1890)

On Apiaceae—Apium graveolens

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia arenariae (Schumacher) J. Schröt., (Barclay 1891)

On Caryophyllaceae—Stellaria paniculata

Distribution: Narkanda (Shimla)

Puccinia atropuncta Peck & Clint., (Chona et al. 1956)

On Asteraceae—Prenanthes brunoniana

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia bulbocastani (A. Cumino) Fuckel., (Bhardwaj & Sharma 1990)

On Apiaceae—on Bunium persicum

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia bistortae (F. Strauss.) DC., (Sydow 1938)

On Polygonaceae—Polygonum viviparum

Distribution: Losar, Spiti (Lahul & Spiti)

Puccinia brachypodii G.H. Otth., (Payak 1965)

On Berberidaceae—Berberis aristata

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia bupleuri (Opiz) Rudolphi, (syn. Pucciniabupleuri-falcati (DC.) G. Wint. (Barclay 1890)

On Apiaceae—Bupleurum falcatum

Distribution:  Shimla 

Puccinia calthae Link, (Arthur & Cummins 1933; Chona et al. 1956)

On Ranunculaceae—Caltha palustris var. alba

Distribution:  Dhramshala (Kangra); Rohtang pass (Kullu)

Puccinia caricis var. himalayensis Barclay,(Butler & Bisby 1931; Padwick & Khan 1944)

On Cyperaceae—Carex setigera

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia caricis-filicinae Barclay, (Mitter & Tandon 1938)

On Cyperaceae—Carex filicina

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia caricis-nubigenae Padwick & A. Khan, (Mitter & Tandon 1938)

On Cyperaceae—Carex nubigena

Distribution: Kufri, Shimla

Puccinia carthami Corda, (Sydow & Butler 1901)

On Asteraceae—Carthamus oxycantha

Distribution: Kangra

Puccinia chrysopogoni Barclay, (Barclay 1890; Sydow & Butler 1907)

Oleaceae—Jasminum humile

Poaceae—Chrysopogon gryllus

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia circaeae Pers., (Barclay 1890)

On Onagraceae—Circaea alpine

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia collettiana Barclay, (Barclay 1890; Ganguly & Pandotra 1963)

On Rubiaceae—Rubia cordifolia

Distribution Shimla, Kasauli (Solan), Naggar (Kullu)

Puccinia coronata Corda, (syn. Puccinia coronata var. avenae P. Syd. & Syd.) (Mishra et al. 1964)

On Poaceae—Avena sativa

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia cousiniae P. Syd. & Syd., (Padwick 1945)

On Poaceae—Coursinia thomsoni

Distribution: Spiti (Lahul & Spiti)

Puccinia cynodontis Lacroix ex Desm., (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Cynodon dactylon

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia dactylidina Bubák, (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Poaceae—Dactylis glomerata

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia dioscoreae Kom., (Pandotra & Ganguly 1962)

On Dioscoreaceae—Dioscorea deltoidea

Distribution: Manali

Puccinia duthiei Ellis & Tracy, (Sydow & Butler 1911)

On Poaceae—Andropogon pertusus

Distribution:  Kasauli (Solan)

Puccinia ellisii De Toni, (Barclay 1891)

On Apiaceae—Angelica glauca

Distribution: Phagu, Shimla

Puccinia eremuri Kom., (Barclay 1891)

On Xanthorrhoeaceae—Eremurus himalaicus

Distribution: Kullu

Puccinia erianthi Padwick & A. Khan, (Padwick & Khan 1944)

On Poaceae—Erianthus fulvus

Distribution:  Shimla

Puccinia eulaliae Barclay, (Butler & Bisby 1960)

On Poaceae—Pollinia japonica

Distribution: Reported from Shimla (H.P.) only.

Puccinia excelsa Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Lamiaceae—Phlomis bracteosa

Distribution: Mahasu & Huttoo Peak, Shimla

Puccinia fagopyri Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Polygonaceae—Fagopyrum esculentum

Distribution: Shimla, Sangla valley (Kinnaur)

Puccinia flavipes Syd. & P. Syd., (Barclay 1890)

On Rosaceae—Fragaria vesca

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia gentianae (F. Strauss.) Link, (Barclay 1890)

On Gentianaceae—Gentiana kurroo

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia geranii-silvatici P. Karst., (Barclay 1890)

On Geraniaceae—Geranium nepalense

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia striiformis Westend, (syn. Puccinia glumarum (Schw.) Eriks & P. Henn.) (Prasada 1948)

On Poaceae—Brachypodium sylvaticum

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia graminis Pers., (Barclay 1890a)

On Poaceae—Festuca gigentia

Distribution:  Shimla, Kullu 

Puccinia graminis-agropyri P.R. Mehta & R. Prasad, (Prasada 1948)

On Poaceae—Agropyron semicostatum

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia graminis-poae Erikss. & Henning, (Prasada 1948)

On Poaceae—Poa nemoralis

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia himalensis (Barclay) Dietel, (Padwick 1946; Sydow & Butler 1906 & 1907)

On Poaceae—Festuca gigentia

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia himachalensis A.K. Gautam and S. Avasthi, (Gautam & Avasthi 2016a)

On Ranunculaceae—Clematis grata

Distribution: Mandi

Puccinia invenusta Syd. & P. Syd., (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Phramites karka

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia iridis Wallr., (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Iridaceae—Iris florentina

Distribution:  Shimla

Puccinia komarovii Tranzschel ex P. Syd. & Syd., (Khanna 1961)

On Balsaminaceae—Impatiens amphorata

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia leptodermidis Barclay, (Barclay 1890; Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Rubiaceae—Leptodermis lenceolata

Distribution: Shimla, Kasauli (Solan)

Puccinia menthae Pers., (Pandotra & Ganguly 1964; Sydow & Butler 1912; Sydow 1938)

On Lamiaceae—Mentha longifolia

Distribution: Busher, Shimla, Kasauli, Kullu

Puccinia minutissima Arthur, (Munjal & Gill 1962)

On Poaceae—Saccharum officinarum

Distribution: Manali

Puccinia nepalensis Barclay & Dietel, (Barclay 1890; Ramakrishanan 1952)

On Polygonaceae—Rumex nepalensis

Distribution: Shimla and Kasauli

Puccinia neyraudiae Syd. & P. Syd., (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Neyraudia arundinacea

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia nitida (F. Strauss) Barclay, (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Polygonaceae—Polygonum ampelexicaule

Distribution:  Mashobra, Shimla, Rohtaang Pass

Puccinia opizii Bubák, (Arthur & Cunmins 1933)

On Asteraceae—Lactuca decipiens

Distribution: Alwas (Chamba)

Puccinia pacifica Blasdale ex Arthur, (Chona et al. 1956)

On Plantaginaceae—Plantago tibetica

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desm., (syn. Pucciniapersistens Plowr., Pucciniarubigo-vera  (DC.)  G. Winter) (Arthur & Cummins 1933; Barclay 1890; Jain et al. 1966) 

On Ranunculaceae—Aquilegia vulgaris, Thalictrum javanicum, Thalictrum minus

Distribution: Shimla, Dharamshala, Chamba, Kote, Keylog, Kullu

Puccinia pimpinellae (F. Strauss) Link, (Barclay 1890)

On Apiaceae—Pimpinella diversifolia

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia polliniae Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Acanthaceae—Pollinia nuda

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia pogonatheri Petch, (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Pogonatherum paniceum

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia polygoni-amphibii Pers., (Syn. Pucciniapolygone Alb. & Schw.)(Ganguly & Pandotra 1963, Mishra & Sharma 1964)

On Polygonaceae—Polygonum orientale

Distribution: Shimla, Katrain (Kullu)

Puccinia prainiana Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Smilacaceae—Smilax aspera

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia punctata Link, (Barclay 1890)

On Rubiaceae—Galium aparnie

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia purpurea Cooke, (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Sorgham halepense

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia pusilla Syd. & P. Syd., (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Poaceae—Cappilipedium assimite

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia recondita var.  simlensis A.P. Misra, S.T. Ahmad & Sheodh. Singh, (Gupta 1977)

On Ranunculaceae—Thalictrum javanicum,

On Poaceae—Helicotrichon virens

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia roscoeae Barclay, (Gupta 1977)

On Zingiberaceae—Roscoea alpina, Roscoea procera

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia saviculae Grev., (Barclay 1890)

On Apiaceae—Savicula europea

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia saxifragae-cilliatae Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Saxifragaceae—Saxifrega ligulata

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia heucherae (Schweinitz) Dietel, (syn. Puccinia saxifragae-micranthae Barclay) (Barclay 1891)

On Saxifragaceae—leaves of Saxifrega micrantha

Distribution: Bushar & Shimla

Puccinia sonchi Roberge ex Desm., (Sydow 1938)

On Asteraceae—Sonchus sp.

Distribution: Kullu

Puccinia sorghi Schwein., (Annonymous 1950; Mishra 1963a)

On Poaceae—Zea maize

On Oxalidaceae—Oxalis conriculata

Distribution: Mashobra & Shimla

Puccinia striiformis Westend., (Vasudeva 1958; Joshi & Merchand 1963; Mishra et al. 1965, 1975; Ahmad et al. 1969)

On Poaceae—Muehlenbergia huegelii; Bromusjaponicas and Loliumperenne

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia striiformis f. muehlenbergii Misra & Lele., (Mishra & Lele 1963)

On Poaceae—Muehlenbergia huegelii

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia tanaceti DC., (Sharma & Sachan 1994; Bharat 2008)

On Asteraceae—Artemisia nilogirica

Distribution: Solan

Puccinia thlaspeos Ficinus & C. Schub., (Arthur 1934; Arthur & Cummins 1933)

On Brassicaceae—Draba lanceolata

Distribution: Hunan Nallah, Pangi & Chamba

Puccinia tiliaefolia T.S. Ramakr. & Sundaram, (Gautam & Avasthi 2017c)

On Malvaceae—Grewia tiliifolia

Distribution: Mandi

Puccinia tricholepidis Syd., (Sydow 1938)

On Asteraceae—Tricholepis elongata

Distribution: Saharan & Bushar

Puccinia trifolii R. Hedw., (Arthur & Cummins 1933)

On Ranunculaceae—Anemone polyanthes

Distribution: Alwas, Chamba

Puccinia tweediana T.S. Ramakr. & K. Ramakr., (Chona & Munjal 1955;

Ramakrishnan & Ramakrishnan 1948)

On Acanthaceae—Dicliptera sp., D. bupleuroides

Distribution: Kullu, Shimla

Puccinia urticae Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Urticaceae—Urtica parviflora

Distribution: Shimla & Kasauli

Puccinia ustalis Berk., (Berkeley 1856)

On Ranunculaceae—leaves of Ranunculus hirtellus

Distribution: Mathana, Shimla

Puccinia violae (Schumach.) DC., (Bilgrami 1963)

On Violaceae—Viola serpens.

Distribution: Shimla

Puccinia wattiana Barclay, (Sharma & Sachan 1994)

On Ranunculaceae—Clematis gouriana

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Uromyces (Link) Unger (Image 12)         

Type species: Uredo appendiculata Pers. (1796)

Uromyces trifolii (R. Hedw.) Lév., (Syn. Uromyces flectens Lagerh., Uromycesnerviphilus  (Grognot) Hotson) (Gautam & avasthi 2017a)

On Fabaceae—leaves of Trifolium repens L.,

Distribution: Chail Chowk, Mandi

Uromyces viciae-fabae (Pers.) J. Schröt. (syn. Uromyces fabae (Pers.) de Barry. (Kulshreshtha et al. 1998)

On Fabaceae—leaves of Vigna radiata (L.)

Distribution:  Shimla

Uromyces agropyri Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Poaceae —Agropyron sp. 

Distribution: Bushahr (Shimla)

Uromyces dactylidis G.H. Otth (Syn. Puccinia lycoctoni Fuckel) (Sydow & Butler 1907)

On Ranunculaceae—Aconitum lycoctonum

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces ciceris-arietini (Grognot.) Jacz. & G. Boyer, (Payak 1962)

On Fabaceae—Trigonella polyerata

Distribution:  Shimla

Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Link, (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Fabaceae—Vigna vexillata

Distribution: Dhramshala

Uromyces macintirianus Barclay, (Sydow & Butler 1938)

On Acanthaceae—leaves of Hemigraphis latebrosa

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces hobsonii Vize, (Sydow & Butler 1907)

On Oleaceae—leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces polygoni-avicularis var. polygoni-avicularis (Pers.) P. Karst., (Sydow 1938)

On Polygonaceae—leaves of Polygonum cogatum

Distribution: Lahul Valley (L&S), Kullu

Uromyces rottboelliae Arthur, (Sydow & Butler 1938)

On Poaceae—Rottboellia speciosa

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces sommerfeltii Hyl., Jorst. & Nannf., (Barclay 1890)

On Asteraceae—Solidago virgaurea

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces strobilanthis Barclay, (Mitter & Tandon 1938)

On Acanthaceae—Strobilanthes dalhausianus

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces valerianae- wallichii (Dietel) Arthur & Cummins, (Arthur & Cummins 1933)

On Caprifoliaceae—leaves of Valeria nawallichii,

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces vignae Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Fabaceae—Vigna vexillata

Distribution: Shimla

Uromyces vossiae Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Poaceae —Vossia speciosa

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Haplotelium Syd.

Type species: Haplotelium amoenum (Syd. & P. Syd.) Syd. (1922)

Haplotelium ambiens (Cooke) Syd., (syn. Uromyces ambiens Cooke) (Barclay 1891, Sydow 1913)

On Buxaceae—Buxus sempervirens

Distribution: Bushahr (Shimla)


8. Pucciniastraceae Gäum. ex Leppik 1972

Genus: Pucciniastrum G.H. Otth

Type species: Pucciniastrum epilobii (Pers.) G.H. Otth (1861)

Pucciniastrum agrimoniae (Dietel) Tranzschel, (Sydow & Butler 1901; Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Rosaceae—leaves of Agrimonia eupatoria

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Uredinopsis Magnus

Type species: Uredinopsis filicina (Niessl) Magnus (1893)

Uredinopsis syngrammes Munjal & J.N. Kapoor., (Munjal & Kapoor 1961)

On Pteridaceae—Leaves of Syngramme fraxiana Bedd.

Distribution: Narkanda


9. Urocystidaceae Begerow, R. Bauer & Oberw.

Genus: Urocystis Rabenh. ex Fuckel

Type species: Urocystis occulta (Wallr.) Rabenh. (1867)

Urocystis sorosporioides Körn. ex Fuckel, (Mundkar & Thirumalachar 1952)

On Ranunculaceae—leaves and stem of Delphinium denudatum

Distribution: Shimla


10. Raveneliaceae Leppik 

Genus: Ravenelia Bark.

Type species: Ravenelia glanduliformis Berk. & M.A. Curtis (1874)

Ravenelia mitis Syd. & P. Syd. (Sydow & Sydow 1904-21)

On Fabaceae—leaves of Tephrosia purpurea

Distribution: Solan

Ravenelia tandonii Syd. (Bakshi & Singh)

On Fabaceae—leaves of Acacia catechu

Distribution: Solan.


Incertae sedis

Genus: Aecidium Pers.

Type species: Aecidium berberidis Pers. ex J.F. Gmel. (1792)

Aecidium cunninghamianum Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

on Rosaceae—leaves of Cotoneaster bacillaris Wall.

Distribution: Shimla

Aecidium flavescens Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

on Asteraceae —leaves of Senecio rufinervis DC.

Distribution: Mashobra, Shimla

Aecidium infrequens Barclay, (Sydow & Butler 1912)

on Geraniaceae —leaves of Geranium nepalense

Distribution: Shimla

Aecidium leucospermum DC., (Barclay 1890)

on Ranunculaceae—leaves of Anemone rivularis

Distribution: Shimla

Aecidium lophanthi P. Henn., (Arthur & Cummins 1933)

on Lamiaceae—leaves of Mentha sp.

Distribution: Chamba

Aecidium montanum E.J. Butler, (Arthur & Cimmins 1933)

On Berberidaceae—leaves of Berberis lyceum

Distribution: Kangra

Aecidium mori Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

OnMoraceae—leaves of Morusalba

Distribution: Shimla

Aecidium myriactidis (Barclay) Syd. & P.Syd., (Barclay 1890)

On Asteraceae—leaves of Myriactis nepalensis

Distribution: Mashobra (Shimla)

Aecidium orbiculare Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Ranunculaceae—leaves of Clematisgrata

Distribution: Shimla

Aecidium peristrophes Syd. & P. Syd., (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Acanthaceae—leaves of Peristrophe sp.

Distribution: Kangra 

Aecidium plectranthi Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Lamiaceae—leaves of Plectranthuscoetsa

Distribution: Shimla

Aecidium wthaniae Thuem., (Sydow & Butler 1912)

On Solanaceae—leaves of Withania coagulans

Distribution: Shimla


Genus: Uredo Pers.

Type species: Uredo betae Pers. (1801)

Uredo apludae Barclay, (Barclay 1890)

On Poaceae—leaves of Apluda aristata

Distribution: Shimla

Uredo duetziae Barclay, (Butler & Bisby 1960)

On Hydrangeaceae—leaves of Deutzia corymbosa

Distribution: Shimla

Uredo lebrookiana Barclay, (Watt), (Butler & Bisby 1960)

On Lamiaceae—leaves of Colebrookea oppositifolia,

Distribution: Suni, near Simla

Uredo gomphrenae Barclay, (Sydow & Butler 1907)

On Amaranthaceae—leaves & stem of Gomphrena globosa

Distribution: Shimla

Uredo ignobilis Syd. & P. Syd., (Pedwick & Khan 1944)

On Poaceae—leaves of Sporobolus indicus

Distribution: Shimla

Uredo pileae Barclay, (Barclay 1891)

On Poaceae—leaves of Sporobulus trinervia

Distribution: Shimla

Uredo valerianae-wallichii Dietel, (Barclay 1891)

On Caprifoliaceae—leaves of Valeriana wallichii,

Distribution: Shimla





The present study provides the checklist of rust fungi from Himachal Pradesh, a northwestern Himalayan State of India.  A remarkable diversity of rust fungi have been reported from the state which has an area of 55,673km2. The state exhibits marked variations in climate and vegetation and so far in fungal diversity.  The available information about rust fungi from the state is in general meager and there is much scope for exploratory work on the taxonomy, diversity and ecological aspects of these fungi.  There are about 167 species, 23 genera belonging to 11 families recorded from this hilly Himalayan state, with great variations in host infected (about 171 plant species belonging to 121 genera and 52 families).  This distinguished diversity of rust fungi may be due to the fact that rust fungi tend to prefer humid habitats, which is one of the major characteristic features of the state.  Being obligate parasites, rust fungi are associated with spreading and development of nutrient plants and are found in many belts, both on herbaceous plants, and on trees and shrubs.

After compilation of literature it is observed that most of the rust fungi were reported from Shimla and nearby regions.  Although, these fungi are also reported from other districts of the state but the scope of exploration of these fungi and their host range is still there.

Two checklists on two major rust genera namely, Puccinia (Gautam & Avasthi 2016b) Uromyces (Gautam & Avasthi 2017a) have recently been published from this hilly state.  Two new species of rust fungi namely Puccinia himachalensis (Gautam & Avasthi 2016a) and Skierka himalayensis (Gautam & Avasthi 2017b) have been reported from the state which are new to science.  Whereas, Pileolaria pistaciae (Gautam & Avasthi 2017b), Kweilingia divina (Gautam & Avasthi 2018) are the new additions to the mycobiota of the state while, Puccinia tiliaefolia (Gautam & Avasthi 2017c) has been rediscovered after 46 years from India.  During the literature survey we did not come across any molecular studies conducted on rust fungi from the state.  As per greater phytodiversity of the state, studies on the rust fungi are inadequate and there is vast scope to conduct studies and fill the data gaps.  Molecular studies of rust fungi are still required besides morphological taxonomy, which will not only help in revision and reassessment of the existing fungal species, but also to find their correct taxonomic position.  The knowledge generated by the work is of immense utility as it is a key to revealing the diversity and ecology of rust fungi from Himachal Pradesh Himalaya.



Table 1. Number of species of rust fungi in the families and genera in Himachal Pradesh.



Number of species
























































Total (10)



Incertae sedis





Grand Total (11)




For images - - click here




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