Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2018 | 10(2): 11316–11331

 

 

 

 

A preliminary study on the dung beetles of the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India

 

Aparna Sureshchandra Kalawate

 

Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Vidhya Nagar, Sector-29, P.C.N.T. (PO), Rawet Road, Akurdi,

Pune, Maharashtra 411044, India

devarpanento@gmail.com

 

 

 

doi: http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3844.10.2.11316-11331|  ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:28749554-41FD-4470-B8E8-8FBDEFCA51A8

 

Editor: P.P. Bhattacharjee, Tripura University, Tripura, India.        Date of publication: 26 February 2018 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 3844 | Received 13 October 2017 | Final received 02 January 2018 | Finally accepted 21 January 2018

 

Citation: Kalawate, A.S. (2018). A preliminary study on the dung beetles of the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(2): 11316–11331; http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3844.10.2.11316-11331

 

Copyright: © Kalawate 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The author declares no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: I am grateful to Dr. Kailash Chandra, Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata and Dr. P.S. Bhatnagar, Scientist-D & Officer-in-Charge, Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune for providing facilities. I wish to extend my thanks to Shri. Sreejith S. Kumar, Senior Zoological Assistant, Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune for preparing map of the survey localities. The author is grateful to the reviewer’s and the subject editor for their valuable comments that improved the manuscript.

 

 

 

Abstract: The present study documented 50 species represented by 25 genera, 17 tribes, seven subfamilies belonging to Hybosoridae, Geotrupidae and Scarabaeidae of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea from the northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra.  The identified specimens are deposited at the National Zoological Collection, Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.  This is the preliminary study and a first report on the dung beetle fauna of this region covering almost the entire northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra.

 

Keywords: Dung beetles, Scarabaeidae, Geotrupidae, Hybosoridae, Dung beetles.

 

 

 

 

Beetles belonging to the Scarabaeidae family are commonly called dung beetles.  Scarabaeidae comprises about 27,800 species worldwide (Ratcliffe 2002).  It includes Laprosticti and Pleurosticti beetles.  The Laprosticti includes dung feeders while the Pleurosticti is phytophagous. They are cosmopolitan, and their diversity is high in tropical forests (Hanski & Cambefort 1991).  Dung beetles are important decomposers, involved in nutrient recycling, seed dispersal and the control of vertebrate parasites (dung breeding dipteran pests) and are therefore an important component of tropical forest systems (Hanski & Krikken 1991).  The phytophagous dung beetles feed on many important agricultural crops causing economic losses amounting millions of rupees affecting the GDP of the country.  The damage caused by scarab is severe in economic crops like sugarcane, groundnut, cereals, millets, pulses, vegetables and plantation crops.  As per Kulkarni et al. (2007) incidence of scarab beetle, Schizonycha ruficollis in teak (Tectona grandis) lead to 14–52 % of damage to seedlings in the nursery beds itself.  A species diversity study is vital for planning the pest management practices.  Geographical variations with cropping pattern differences contribute to the composition of species complex of a region (Sreedevi et al. 2017).  Hence, a diversity study of dung beetles would be helpful to the concerned authority in pest management options.

A few studies reported that the local distribution of dung beetles is strongly influenced by vegetation cover and soil type (Nealis 1977; Doube 1983; Janzen 1983).  They are ideal bio-indicators for investigating impacts of anthropogenic disturbances to ecosystems.  They have been used in several studies to investigate the effects of environmental disturbance on forest diversity and structure (Howden & Nealis 1975; Klein 1989; Nummelin & Hanski 1989; Davis & Sutton 1998; Davis 2000).  Biodiversity surveys are important in providing information needed for conservation planning, and development of management plans, the rich biodiversity of the dung beetles are to be conserved and protected to maintain the ecological balance.

The Fauna of British India on Scarabaeid beetles was published in three volumes by Arrow (1910, 1917 and 1931) describing 1,300 species from British India.  The Fauna of Maharashtra Part-II: State Fauna series, listed 89 species in 32 genera belonging to six subfamilies under Scarabaeidae from Maharashtra (Jadhav & Sharma 2012).  A total of 87 species in seven tribes, 13 genera of dung beetles was reported by Priyadarsanan (2006) from Biligiri Rangasamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, a part of the Western Ghats.  Veenakumari & Veeresh (1997) reported 61 species of Scarabaeinae from Bangalore, Karnataka, India.  Sathiandran et al. (2015) studied 36 species of dung beetles from Periyar Tiger Reserve in southern Western Ghats.  On perusal of literature, it was found that a comprehensive study on dung beetles with their distribution is lacking from northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra.  Hence, an attempt was made to assess the diversity of dung beetles of this region.  The present study on scarabaeid beetles was preliminary and covered the entire Western Ghats of Maharashtra for the first time with their distribution and different collection localities.

 

Materials and Methods

The surveys were undertaken from 2015–2017 covering 13 districts of Western Ghats of Maharashtra, viz.: Thane, Satara, Sangli, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Nandurbar, Palghar, Sindhudurg, Dhule, Pune, Kolhapur, Nasik, and Ahmednagar.  Also, specimens lying in unidentified collections of the Western Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Pune were studied.  Detailed survey localities are mentioned under material examined and shown in Fig. 1.  The beetles were collected using light traps and by handpicking from the dung present in the field. The light traps were operated from 19:00 hrs to 24:00 hrs and were installed at the collection sites for two nights in each survey locality. The specimens were killed using ethyl acetate vapors and preserved dry.  The collected beetles were relaxed, pinned and preserved in the laboratory for further studies.  The specimens were studied under Leica EZ 4 HD stereozoom microscope.  All identified specimens were labeled, duly registered and deposited at National Zoological Collection, Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India (ZSI-WRC).  The specimens were identified with the help of available literature, i.e., Arrow (1910, 1917, 1931), Balthasar (1963a,b, 1964), Kuijten(1983), and Krikken (2013).  The classification of Scarabaeoidea presented in the present paper is as per Arrow (1910, 1917, 1931), Balthasar (1963a,b, 1964) and   Kuijten(1983); modifications have been incorporated as per Lobl & Smetana (2006) and Smith (2006).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results and Discussion

 

Order Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758

Suborder Polyphaga Emery, 1886

Superfamily Scarabaeoidea Latreille, 1802

(I) Family Hybosoridae Erichson, 1847

A) Subfamily Hybosorinae Erichson, 1847

 

1. Hybosorus orientalis Westwood, 1845 (Image 1)

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 6 : 159.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2639, 26.i.2017, 03 ex., Valkhed, Dindori, Nashik, V.D. Hegde & Party (20.223290N & 73.83690E, elevation 614m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2635, 02.viii.2016, 03 ex., Kondaibari, Sakri, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 21.08395150N & 74.15409020E, elevation 705m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2612, 20.ix.1973, 01 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik, M.B. Rao (20.107140N & 73.569230E, elevation 734m).

Distribution: Afghanistan, China, India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tibet.

 

(II) Family Geotrupidae Latreille, 1802

(B) Subfamily Bolboceratinae Mulsant, 1842

Tribe Bolboceratini Mulsant, 1842

 

2. Bolboceras nigricans Westwood, 1848 (Image 2)

Proceed. Linn. Soci. London, 1: 384–387.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2895, 29.ix.1968, 02 ex., Babdevghat, Pune, B.S. Lamba & Party (approximate location: 18.31130N & 73.51240E).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry), Myanmar, Tanzania.

 

(III) Family Scarabaeidae Latreille, 1802

(C) Subfamily Cetoniinae Leach, 1819

Tribe Cetoniini Leach, 1815

 

3. Anatona stillata (Newman, 1838) (Image 3)

Cetonia stillata Newman, 1838; Ent. Mag.,V : 169.

Anatona stillata: Arrow, 1910; Faun. Brit. India, I: 114.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1924, 17.x.1962, 01 ex., Sinhagad fort, Pune, S.M. Ketkar & Party (approximate location: 18.48865130N & 73.81316170E, elevation 572m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2889, 24.ix.1971, 01 ex., Bhosari, Pune, K.R. Rao & Party (approximate location: 18.6385290N & 73.8477870E, elevation 597m).

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

4. Chiloloba acuta (Wiedemann, 1823) (Image 4)

Cetonia acuta Wied., 1823; Zool. Mag., 2(1) : 87.

Chiloloba acuta: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, I: 172.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2631, 02.x.2016, 01 ex., Kaksevad, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 20.93029140N & 74.03882520E, elevation 572m).

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Sri Lanka.

 

Tribe Goliathini

 

Coenochilus brunneus Saunders, 1842 (Image 5)

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii, p. 235.

Coenochilus brunneus: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 187.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2609, 24.vi.1984, 01 ex., Dhuheri Nalla, Kurne, Pali, Ratnagiri, R.H. Kamble & Party (approximate location: 16.91017080N & 73.5064020E, elevation 108m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal), Bangladesh.

 

6. Coenochilus acutipes Arrow, 1910

Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 210.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2603, 01.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party  (16.551940N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Maharashtra).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

7. Coenochilus nitidus Arrow, 1910

Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 210.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2893, 01 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, 13.vii.2017,  A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m).

Distribution: India (Maharashtra, Karnataka).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

8. Gametis versicolor (Fabricius, 1775) (Image 6)

Cetonia versicolor Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.,: 51.

Oxycetonia versicolor: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 164.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2633, 02.x.2016, 03 ex., Kaksevad, Sakri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 20.93029140N & 74.03882520E, elevation 572m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1246, 17.x.1962, 07 ex., Sinhagad fort, Pune, S.M. Ketkar & Party (approximate location: 18.48865130N & 73.81316170E, elevation 572m).

Distribution: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Mauritius, Madagascar, Sri Lanka.

 

(D) Subfamily Dynastinae MacLeay, 1819

Tribe Oryctini Mulsant, 1842

 

9. Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) (Image 7)

Scarabaeus rhinoceros Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat.i: 346.

Oryctes rhinoceros: Burm.,1847; Randh. Ent. v: 202.

Oryctes rhinoceros: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 278.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2586, 15.vi.2015, 01 ex., ZSI, WRC, Pune, Alim Sayyed (18.64831130N & 73.76014240E, elevation 579m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1396, 06.i.2012, 1 ex., Mulshi, Pune, M.J. Jadhav (18.50105360N & 73.51376540E, elevation 642m).

Distribution: India (Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

 

Tribe Pentodontini Mulsant, 1842

 

10. Phyllognathus dionysius (Fabricius, 1792) (Image 8)

Scarabaeus dionysius Fabricius, 1792; Syt. Ent. i, p. 20.

Phyllognathus dionysius: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 307.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1653, 21.ix.2013, 01 ex., Palus, Sangli, S. Lad (17.0976430N & 74.44963170E, elevation 593m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1923 06.i.2012, 01 ex., Yerwada, Pune, A.S. Kalawate (18.552939220N & 73.911230560E, elevation 562m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2626, 24.vi.2016, 01 ex., Shewali, Sakhri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 20.992454650N & 74.350962640E, elevation 429m).

Distribution: China, India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh), Nepal, Sri Lanka.

 

Tribe Dynastini Macley, 1819

 

11. Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus, 1767) (Image 9)

Scarabaeus gideon Linnaeus, 1767; Syst. Nat. 12th ed., 1(2): 54l.

Xylotrupes gideon: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 262.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1995, 30.x.2015, 01 ex., Pali, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.987840N & 73.480110E, elevation 201m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2645, 29.x.2015, 03 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1999, 11.ix.2015, 01 ex., Shivadav, Kankawali, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.2352390N & 73.7772030E, elevation 106m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1986, 01.xi.2015, 02 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2534, 30.x.2015, 02 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m).

Distribution: India (Assam, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal), Sri Lanka.

 

Tribe Phileurini Burmeister, 1847

 

12. Eophileurus platypterus (Wiedmann, 1823)

Geotrupes platypterus Wiedmann, 1823;Zool. Mag. ii.1: 5.

Eophileurus platypterus: Arrow, 1910; Fauna British India, Coleoptera, I: 289.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2890, 26.xii.1968, 01 ex., Pune University Compound, Pune, B.K. Halder & Party (approximate location : 18.5544980N & 73.8257320E, elevation 580m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2891, 02.vii.1977, 01 ex., Kharati Nalla, Pune- Ahmednagar Road, Pune, G.M. Yazdani & Party (approximate location: 18.5619740N & 73.9225540E, elevation 566m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

(E) Subfamily Ruteliinae MacLeay, 1819

Tribe Adoretini Burmeister, 1844

 

13. Adoretus lobiceps Arrow, 1917

Fauna British India, II: 303.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2632, 19.ix.2016, 01 ex., Ghodade, Sakhri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 21.039646060N & 74.207839970E, elevation 497m).

Distribution: India (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra).

 

Tribe Anomalini Streubel, 1839

 

14. Anomala dorsalis (Fabricius, 1775) (Image 10)

Melolontha dorsalis Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent., p. 35.

Anomala dorsalis: Arrow, 1917; Fauna British India, II: 136.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1922, 21.vi.1988, 01 ex., ZSI, WRC, Pune, R.H. Kamble & Party (18.64831130N & 73.76014240E, elevation 579m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1925, 01.vi.2014, 01 ex., Yerwada, Pune, A.S. Kalawate & Party (18.552939220N & 73.911230560E, elevation 562m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2540, 11.ix.2015, 01 ex., Shivadav, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.2352390N & 73.7772030E, elevation 106m).

Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Andaman & Nicobar Island, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Pakistan.

 

15. Anomala rugosa Arrow, 1899 (Image 11)

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.: 263.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2876, 23.vi.2017, 09 ex., Ambegaon, Pune, A.S. Kalawate & Party (18.4458030N & 73.8507280E, elevation 681m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2712, 06.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: Bhutan, India (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal.

 

16. Anomala varicolor (Gyllenthal, 1817)

Melolontha varicolor Gyllenthal, Sehonh.1817; Syn. Ins., I: 114.

Anomala varicolor: Arrow, 1917; Fauna British India, II: 152.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2877, 13.vii.2017, 01 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2539, 11.ix.2015, 01 ex., Shivadav, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.2352390N & 73.7772030E, elevation 106m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2541, 21.vi.1984, 01 ex., Rajapur, Ratnagiri, R.H. Kamble & Party (16.65712520N & 73.52112860E, elevation 88m).

Distribution: Bhutan, China, India (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal.

 

17. Anomala bengalensis Blanchard, 1851

Cat. Coli. Ent. Mus. Paris: 182.

Anomala bengalensis: Arrow, 1917; Faun. Brit. India, II: 143.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1919, 13.ii.1962, 02 ex., Dehu, Pune, R.N. Chopra & Party (18.71508520N & 73.76837840E, elevation 584m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2536, 30.x.2015, 05 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2537, 06.ix.2015, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.551940N & 73.846140E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2538, 30.x.2015, 01 ex., Pali, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.551940N & 73.846140E, elevation 201m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2571, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, 06.ix.2015, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.5046.610E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Myanmar.

 

18. Anomala ruficapilla Burmeister, 1855

Handb. Ent., IV, 2: 49.

Anomala ruficapilla: Arrow, 1917; Faun. Brit. India, II: 153.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2627, 05.vii.2016, 01 ex., Sakri, Dhule, S.S. Paotle (20.99260450N & 74.31407420E, elevation 426m).

Distribution: India (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh (Hoshangabad, Seoni, Balaghat, Jabalpur, Umaria), Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal), and Sri Lanka.

 

19. Anomala polita Blanchard, 1851

Cat. Coli. Ent. Mus. Paris: 182.

Anomala polita: Arrow, 1917; Faun. Brit. India, II: 146.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2894, 23.vi.2017, 06 ex., Ambegaon, Pune, A.S. Kalawate & Party (18.4458030N & 73.8507280E, elevation 681m).

Distribution: India (Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal).

 

20. Rhinyptia indica Burmeister, 1844 (Image 12)

Handb. Ent. iv1 p. 228.

Rhinyptia testacea: Nonfr. 1892; Berl. Ent. Zeits. xxxvi p. 280.

Rhinyptia indica: Arrow, 1917; Fauna British India, II: 269.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2600, 20.ix.1973, 02 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik, M.B. Rao & Party (19.93736380N & 73.53635570E, elevation 710m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2601, 01.x.2016, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.5046.610E, elevation 618m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2602, 04.x.2016, 04 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.551940N & 73.846140E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2646, 03 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, 29.x.2015, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2647, 24.x.2013, 01 ex., Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2648, 28.x.2015, 01 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2649, 20.x.2013, 02 ex., Peth, Nashik, R. Bano & Party (20.25530N & 73.501360E, elevation 694m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2650, 21.x.2013, 01 ex., Peth, Nashik, R. Bano & Party (20.25530N & 73.501360E, elevation 694m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2651, 25.x.2013, 02 ex., Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2652, 02.xi.2015, 01 ex., Nandavi, Mangaon, Raigad, A.S. Kalawate & Party (18.116290N & 73.2850E, elevation 27m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2653, 10.ix.2015, 01 ex., Oras, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.11593040N & 73.7078340E, elevation 18m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2701, 31.x.2015, 03 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m).

Distribution: India (Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu).

 

(F) Subfamily: Scarabaeinae Latreille, 1802

Tribe Onthophagini Burmeister, 1846

 

21. Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787)

Scarabaeus gazella Fabricius, 1787; Diff. Speci. Emend. Observat., 1: 348.

Digitonthophagus gazelle: Génier & Davis, 2017; Zootaxa, 4221(4): 497–500.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2572, 01.x.1981, 01 ex., Karjat, Raigad, M.S. Pradhan & Party (18.93230N & 73.32520E, elevation 49m) ; ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2573, 02.x.1974, 01 ex., Shivaji Nagar, Pune, M.S. Malhotra & Party (18.53082250N & 73.84746470E, elevation 560m).

Distribution: Africa, Arabia, India (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu), Madagascar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

 

22. Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) ramosus (Wiedemann, 1823) (Image 13)

Copris ramosa Wied., 1823; Zool. Mag. ii, 1: 13.

Onthophagus ramosus: Arrow, 1931; Fauna Brit. India, III: 236.

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) ramosus, Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae, II: 497

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2881, 13.vii.2017, 02 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1651, 24.vi.1981, 01 ex., Dhuheri Nalla, Kurne, Pali, Ratnagiri, R.H. Kamble & Party (approximate location: 16.910170N & 73.5064020E, elevation 108m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1652, 02.x.1974, 01 ex., Shivaji Nagar, Pune, M.S. Malhotra & Party (18.53082250N & 73.84746470E, elevation 560m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2664, 25.x.2013, 02 ex., PWD Rest House and around, Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttarakhand), Pakistan.

 

23. Onthophagus (Digitonthophagus) bonasus (Fabricius, 1775)

Scarabeaus bonasus Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent. p. 23.

Onthophagus (Digitonthophagus) bonasus Balthasar, 1963; Monogr. Scarab. Aphod. palaearkt. orient., 1 : 296.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2576, 24.vi.1987, 01 ex., Dhuheri Nalla, Kurne, Pali, Ratnagiri, R.H. Kamble & Party (approximate location: 16.91017080N & 73.5064020E, elevation 108m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Pakistan.

 

24. Onthophagus catta (Fabricius, 1787)

Scarabaeus catta Fabricius, 1787; Mant. Ins. 1: 12.

Onthophagus catta: Arrow, 1931; Faun. Brit. India, III: 230.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/77, 04.viii.1964, 02 ex., Law College Hill, Pune, S.M. Ketkar & Party (approximate location: 18.51429610N & 73.82873030E, elevation 580m).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh), Pakistan, Madagascar, Sri Lanka.

 

25. Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) hindu Arrow, 1931 (Image 14)

Faun. Brit. India, III: 289.

Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) hindu, Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera : Lamellicornia), Coprinae, II: 381-382.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2885, 13.vii.2017, 03 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2634, 27.viii.2016, 01 ex., Sakhri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 21.039646060N & 74.207839970E, elevation 497m).

Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra), Pakistan.

 

26. Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) dama (Fabricius, 1798) (Image 15)

Copris dama Fabricius, 1798; Ent. Syst. Supple, p. 32.

Onthophagus dama: d’Orb., 1898; L’Abeille, xxix, p. 217.

Onthophagus (Colobothophagus) dama: Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae and aphodiidae der Palaeark. unlepidiod Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera : Lamellicornia), Coprinae, II: 277–278.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2883, 13.vii.2017, 01 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1993, 01.x.1981, 02 ex., Karjat rest house and around, Raigad, M.S. Pradhan & Party (approximate location: 18.93230N & 73.32520E, elevation 49m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2620, 11.ix.2015, 01ex., Shivadav, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.2352390N & 73.7772030E, elevation 106m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2621, 01.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846140E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2622, 03.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.5046.610E, elevation 618m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2694, 05.ix.2015, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.846140E, elevation 618m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2697, 04.ix.2015, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.5046.610E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Nepal, Sri Lanka.

 

27. Onthophagus unifasciatus (Schaller, 1783)

Scarabaeus unifasciatus Schaller, 1783; Abh. Hall. Nat. Ges.1: 240.

Onthophagus prolixus Walker, 1858; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) iii: 208.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2696, 04.ix.2015, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.846140E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Sri Lanka.

 

28. Onthophagus agnus Gillet, 1925

Ann. Soc. Brux. XIiV: 233.

Onthophagus agnus: Arrow, 1931; Faun. Brit. India, III: 296.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2896, 03 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, 13.vii.2017, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m).

Distribution: India (Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

Tribe Coprini Leach, 1815

 

29. Heliocopris bucephalus (Fabricius, 1775) (Image 16)

Scarabaeus bucephalus Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 24.

Heliocopris bucephalus: Arrow, 1931; Fauna Brit. India, III: 88.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2598, 07.ix.1993, 01 ex., Khandala, Pune, P.D. Rane & Party (approximate location: 18.76920340N & 73.37676410E, elevation 536m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2528, 16.ix.2016, 01 ex., Around Kudal Rest house, Sindhudurg, V.D. Hegde & Party (15.99978050N & 73.683156970E, elevation 40m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2529, 20.ix.1973, 01 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik, M.B. Rao & Party (approximate location: 19.93736380N & 73.53635570E, elevation 710m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1984, 20.ix.1981, 01 ex., Near Roha Rest House, Raigad, M.S. Pradhan & Party (18.43895110N & 73.11675140E, elevation 11m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1985, 01.xi.2015, 02 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1252, 25.ix.1970, 01 ex., Ambenali, Satara, R.N. Chopra & Party (approximate location: 17.930N & 73.550E, elevation 325m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1655, 21.ix.2013, 01 ex., Palus, Sangli, S. Lad & Party (approximate location: 17.0976430N & 74.44963170E, elevation 593m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2531, 30.ix.2015, 01 ex., GPRA Colony, Pune, A.S. Kalawate (18.6510830N & 73.764693440E, elevation 586m).

Distribution: Afghanistan, China, India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Indonesia, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

30. Heliocopris gigas (Linnaeus, 1764) (Image 17)

Scarabaeus gigas Linnaeus, 1764; Mus. Lud.UIr., p. 16.

Heliocopris gigas: Arrow, 1928; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 74.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2636, 06.v.2016, 01 ex., Chhadvel-Korde, Sakri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 21.206058410N & 74.246442320E, elevation 528m).

Distribution: Africa, Egypt, India (Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh), Pakistan.

 

31. Copris (Copris) repertus Walker, 1858

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (3) ii: 208.

Copris repertus: Arrow, 1931; Faun. Brit. India, III: 116.

Copris (Copris) repertus: Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark.Und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 351.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2875, 23.vi.2017, 01 ex., Ambegaon, Pune, A.S. Kalawate & Party (18.4458030N & 73.8507280E, elevation 681m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2662, 20.x.2013, 05 ex., Forest Rest House, Peth, Nashik, R. Bano & Party (20.25530N & 73.501360E, elevation 694m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2663, 21.x.2013, 01 ex., Forest Rest House, Peth, Nashik, R. Bano & Party (20.25530N & 73.501360E, elevation 694m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1930, 23.x.2013, 04 ex., Forest Rest House, Peth, Nashik, R. Bano & Party (20.25530N & 73.501360E, elevation 694m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1929, 25.x.2013, 01 ex., PWD Rest House, Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.9050038 0N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh), Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

 

32. Copris (Paracopris) imitans Felsche, 1910 (Image 18)

Deutsche Ent. Zeits. p. 347.

Copris imitans: Arrow, 1931; Faun. Brit. India, III: 124.

Copris (Paracopris) imitans: Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. Und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 367.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2874, 23.vi.2017, 03 ex., Ambegaon, Pune, A.S. Kalawate & Party (18.4458030N & 73.8507280E, elevation 681); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2888, 13.vii.2017, 01 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2605, 04.x.2016, 01 ex., PWD, Rest House, Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846140E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2584, 17.x.1962, 08 ex., Sinhagad, Pune, S.M. Ketkar & Party (approximate location 18.48865130N & 73.81316170E, elevation 572m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal).

 

33. Copris (Paracopris) andrewesi Waterhouse, 1891

Ann. Mag. Nal. Hist (6) vii: 621.

Copris andrewesi: Arrow, 1931; Fauna Brit. India, III: 127.

Copris (Paracopris) andrewesi Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. Und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 368.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2665, 10.ix.2015, 02 ex., PWD, Rest House, Oras, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.11593040N & 73.7078340E, elevation 18m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2589, 16.viii.1966, 01 ex., Moshi, Pune, R.N. Chopra & Party (18.67310510N & 73.84778740E, elevation 580m).

Distribution: Bhutan, India (Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Nepal.

 

34. Copris (Copris) sinicus Hope, 1842

Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond.: 60.

Copris (Copris) sinicus: Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera : Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 342.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2655, 24.x.2013, 01 ex., PWD, Rest House, Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2615, 01.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: China, India (Maharashtra), Myanmar.

 

35. Catharsius (Catharsius) pithecius (Fabricius, 1775) (Image 19)

Scarabaeus pithecius Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 21.

Catharsius pithecius: Arrow. 1931; Fauna Brit. India, III: 100.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2595, 20.ix.1973, 01 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik, M.B. Rao & Party (approximate location: 19.93736380N & 73.53635570E, elevation 710m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2628, 05.vii.2016, 01 ex., Ambapur, Sakri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 21.68617480N & 74.51703190E, elevation 221m).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh), Sri Lanka.

 

36. Catharsius (Catharsius) molossus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scarabaeus molossus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. ed., 10: 347.

Catharsius molossus: Arrow, 1931; Fauna Brit. India, III : 95–96.

Catharsius (Catharsius) molossus, Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 307–309

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2597, 01.x.2016, 03 ex., Gaganbawda Rest house and around, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846140E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2656, 26.x.2013, 03 ex., PWD Rest House, Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2657, 28.x.2013, 01 ex., PWD Rest House, Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2659, 23.x.2013, 01 ex., Forest Rest House, Peth, Nashik, R. Bano & Party (20.25530N & 73.501360E, elevation 694m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2699, 02.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda Rest house and around, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Island, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Sri Lanka.

 

37. Catharsius (Catharsius) sagax (Quenstedt, 1806) (Image 20)

Copris sagax Quenstedt, 1806; Schonh. Sys. Ins .I: 43.

Catharsius sagax: Arrow, 1931; Fauna Brit. India, III: 96.

Catharsius (Catharsius) molossus : Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 307.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1248, 20.ix.1981, 02 ex., Hill near Roha, Raigad, M.S. Pradhan & Party (18.422941850N & 73.110923770E, elevation 224m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1249, 01.x.1981, 01 ex., Karjat Rest House and surrounding, Raigad, M.S. Pradhan & Party (approximate location: 18.93230N & 73.32520E, elevation 49m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1250, 20.vi.1987, 01 ex., Rest House Rajapur, Ratnagiri, R.H. Kamble & Party (16.655270140N & 73.525743480E, elevation 91m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1397, 06.i.2012, 01 ex., Mulshi, Pune, M.J. Jadhav (18.50105360N & 73.51376540E, elevation 642m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1698, 04.xi.1981, 03 ex., Kulchiwadi, Varnawati River basin, Fonda ghat, Kankawali, Sindhudurg, Ramakrishna & Party (approximate location: 16.380426660N & 73.809757230E, elevation 139m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1699, 18.ii.1980, 01 ex., Hattimahal, Radhanagari WLS, Kolhapur, C.A.N. Rao & Party (approximate location: 16.410563280N & 73.991804120E, elevation 566m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1715, 24.ii.1980, 01 ex., Gundu Maharaj Garden, Budhgaon, Sangali, C.A.N. Rao & Party (Approximate location: 16.916253080N & 74.598197940E, elevation 568m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1717, 24.vi.1987, 01 ex., Dhuheri Nalla, Kurne, Pali, Ratnagiri, R.H. Kamble & Party (approximate location: 16.91017080N & 73.5064020E, elevation 108m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1718, 03.x.1974, 01 ex., Shivaji Nagar, Pune, M.S. Malhotra & Party (18.53082250N & 73.84746470E, elevation 560m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1720, 19.xi.1961, 01 ex., NDA, Pune, B.K. Tikader & Party (18.53774980N & 73.80474810E, elevation 585m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1721, 26.vii.1963, 01 ex., Hanuman tekadi, Pune, S.V. Muley & Party (18.52463540N & 73.83418720E, elevation 614m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1977, 01.xi.2015, 02 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2526, 21.vi.1988, 01 ex., ZSI, WRC, Pune, R.H. Kamble & Party (18.64831130N & 73.76014240E, elevation 579m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2596, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, 01.x.2016, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2654, 24.x.2013, 02 ex., PWD Rest House, Jawhar, Thane, R. Bano & Party (19.90500380N & 73.23129460E, elevation 458m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2698, 25.x.2016, 01 ex., Oras Rest house and around, Sindhudurg, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.11593040N & 73.7078340E, elevation 18m).

Distribution: Bhutan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

 

Tribe Oniticellini Kolbe, 1905

 

38. Oniticellus (Oniticellus) cinctus (Fabricius, 1775)

Scarabaeus cinctus Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 30.

Oniticellus cinctus: Arrow, 193; Faun. Brit. India, III: 379–380.

Oniticellus (Oniticellus) cinctus: Balthasar, 1963; Mon.der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. Und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Coprinae II: 77.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2637, 04 ex., Navapada, Dhule, 02.ii.2017, V.D. Hegde & Party (20.987090N & 74.110370E, elevation 550m) ; ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2640, 26.i.2017, 01 ex., Valkhed, Dindori, Nashik, V.D. Hegde & Party (20.223290N & 73.83690E, elevation 614m).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal).

 

Tribe Onitini Laporte, 1840

 

39. Onitis virens Lansberge, 1875 (Image 21)

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xviii: 135.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2700, 02.x.2016, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2695, 04.ix.2015, 04 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2692, 05.ix.2015, 03 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2661, 28.x.2015, 01 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.684740E, elevation 89m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2644, 27.i.2017, 02 ex., Khamble, Peth, Nashik, V.D. Hegde & Party (20.27729N & 73.51582 E, elevation 657m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2643, 20.i.2017, 02 ex., Kombelne, Boprivadi, Akole, Ahmednagar, V.D. Hegde & Party (19.61460N & 73.898160E, elevation 962m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2642, 01.ii.2017, 02 ex., Vaki, Sakri, Dhule, V.D. Hegde & Party (20.965330N & 74.034530E, elevation 589m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2641, 01.ii.2017, 01 ex., Baripada, Sakri, Dhule, V.D. Hegde & Party (20.865570N & 73.988450E, elevation 717m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, West Bengal).

 

40. Onitis philemon Fabricius, 1801

Syst. Eleut.,I: 30.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2630,27.viii.2016, 02 ex., Kondaibari, Sakri, S.S. Patole (approximate location: 21.08395150N & 74.15409020E, elevation 705m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2619, 03.x.2016,01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party, (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2606, 04.x.2016, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2588, 06.ix.2015, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2619, 03.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2661, 28.x.2015, 01 ex., Sakharpa, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.9830N & 73.6840E, elevation 89m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal), Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Tribe Gymnopleurini Lacordaire, 1856

 

41. Gymnopleurus (Gymnopleurus) cyaneus (Fabricius, 1798) (Image 22)

Copris cyaneus Fabricius, 1798; Ent. Syst. Suppl.: 34.

Gymnopleurus cyaneus: Arrow, 1931; Faun. Brit. India, III: 49.

Gymnopleurus (Gymnopleurus) cyaneus, Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera : Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 207

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2570, 07.vii.1961, 01 ex., NCL campus, Pune, S.M. Ketkar & Party (18.53934730N & 73.81317620E, elevation 594m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2569, 26.vii.1963, 01 ex., Hanuman Tekadi, Pune, S.V. Mule & Party (18.52463540N & 73.83418720E, elevation 614m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2629, 02.x.2016, 01 ex., Varsa, Sakri, Dhule, S.S. Patole (20.912670N & 73.986910E, elevation 600m).

Distribution: Bangladesh, India (Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Sri Lanka.

 

42. Gymnopleurus (Metagymnopleurus) gemmatus Harold, 1871

Col. Hefte.,VIII: 118.

Gymnopleurus gemmatus: Arrow, 1931; Faun. Brit. India, III: 53.

Gymnopleurus (Metagymnopleurus) gemmatus, Balthasar, 1963; Mon. der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaeark. und Orientalis. Region (Coleoptera : Lamellicornia), Coprinae, I: 204-205

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2581, 26.vii.1963, 01 ex., Hanuman Tekadi, Pune, S.V. Mule & Party (18.52463540N & 73.83418720E, elevation 614m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Haryana, Kerala, Karnataka, Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal), Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

 

(G) Subfamily Melolonthinae MacLeay, 1819

Tribe Schizonychini Burmeister, 1855

 

43. Schizonycha ruficollis (Fabricius, 1781) (Image 23)

Melolontha ruficollis Fabricius, 1781; Spec. Ins., 7: 39.

Schizonycha xanthodera Blanchard, 1850; Cat. Col. Ent.,1: 139.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2594, 20.ix.1973, 02 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik M.B. Rao & Party (Approximate location: 19.93736380N & 73.53635570E, elevation 710m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2693, 05.ix.2015, 02 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

Tribe Rhizotrogini Burmeister, 1855

 

44. Holotrichia serrata (Fabricius, 1787)

Melolontha serrata Fabricius, 1787; Christ. Gottl. Proft., Hafniae,1: 1–348.

Ancylonycha serrata, Blanchard, 1850; Cat. Col. Ent., 1: 138.

Holotrichia serrata, Dallatorre, 1912; Col. Cat., 49: 206.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/1996, 30.x.2015, 01 ex., PWD, Rest House, Pali, Ratnagiri, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.987840N & 73.480110E, elevation 201m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2583, 11.ix.2015, 01 ex., Shivadav, Sindhudurg, A.S. Kalawate & Party (16.2352390N & 73.7772030E, elevation 106m).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu).

 

45. Holotrichia fissa Brenske, 1894

Mem. Soc. Entomol. Belg., 2: 71.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2617, 01.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2624, 20.ix.1973, 01 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik, M.B. Rao & Party (approximate location: 19.93736380N & 73.53635570E, elevation 710m).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh).

Remark: Endemic to India.

 

46. Holotrichia reynaudi (Blanchard, 1850)

Ancylonycha reynaudi Blanchard, 1850; Cat. Col. Ent., 1: 139.

Holotrichia insularis, Brenske, 1894; Mem. Soc. Entomol. Belg., 2: 67.

Holotrichia reynaudi, Dallatorre; 1912, Col. Cat., 49: 206.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2618, 01.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu).

 

47. Leucopholis lepidophora Blanchard, 1850 (Image 24)

Cat. Coll. Ent., 1: 158.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2886, 13.vii.2017, 01 ex., Bhosgaon, Satara, A.S. Kalawate & Party (17.2290N & 73.9520E, elevation 731m); ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2611, 04.x.2016, 01 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu).

 

Tribe Sericini

 

48. Maladera amboliensis Ahrens & Fabrizi, 2016

Bonn zoological Bulletin, 65 (1 & 2): 1–355.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2607, 03.x.2016, 06 ex., Gaganbawda, Kolhapur, V.D. Hegde & Party (16.552110N & 73.846110E, elevation 601m).

Distribution: India (Maharashtra).

 

49. Maladera alibagensis Ahrens & Fabrizi, 2016

Bonn zoological Bulletin, 65(1&2): 1–355.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2610, 25.vi.1962, 01 ex., Pashan Lake, Pune, B.K. Haldar & Party (18.53439690N & 73.78529220E, elevation 588m).

Distribution: India (Maharashtra).

 

50. Maladera hauseri (Brenske, 1898)

Autoserica hauseri Brenske, 1898; Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 43: 240.

Maladera hauseri: Krajcik, 2012; Animma, X, supplement, 5:154.

Material examined: ZSI-WRC-ENT-1/2625, 20.ix.1973, 01 ex., Trayambakeshwar, Nashik, M.B. Rao & Party (Approximate location: 19.93736380N & 73.53635570E, elevation 710m).

Distribution: India (Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh).

 

A total of 50 species represented by 25 genera, 17 tribes, seven subfamilies belonging to Hybosoridae, Geotrupidae and Scarabaeidae were documented from the surveyed areas.  As shown in Fig. 2, among the studied specimens the subfamily Scarabaeinae emerged as the dominant subfamily with 22 species followed by Melolonthinae (8 species), Rutelinae (8 species), Cetoninae (6 species), Dynastinae (4 species), and Hybosorinae and Geotrupidae with one species each.

A total of seven species endemic to India—Anatona stillata, Coenochilus acutipes, Coenochilus nitidus, Eophileurus platypterus, Onthophagus agnus, Schizonycha ruficollis, Holotrichia fissa—were a part of the studied specimens.  The species of the genus; Gymnopleurus are rollers while Heliocopris, Catharsius, Copris, Onitis and Onthophagus are tunnellers.  The species in the subfamilies i.e. Rutelinae, Melolonthinae, Dynastinae and Cetoniinae are phytophagous.  The beetles belonging to family Geotrupidae are earth borers.

The dominant subfamily Scarabaeinae was represented by four tribes, i.e., Onthophagini, Coprini, Oniticellini, Onitini and Gymnopleurini.  The subfamilies viz., Melolonthinae and Rutelinae were represented by three (Schizonychini, Rhizotrogini, Sericini) and two (Adoretini, Anomalini); Dynastinae by four (Tribe Oryctini, Pentodontini, Dynastini and Phileurini) and Cetoniinae by two tribes (Cetoniini and Goliathini).  From the studied specimens the most diverse genus was Onthophagus with seven species.  These results are consistent with the findings of Chandra & Gupta (2013).  In their study on diversity of Scarabaeid beetles of Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary Onthophagus was the most diverse genus.

Among the phytophagous group, Anomala presenting six species followed by Holotrichia (3 species), Ceonochilus (3 species), Gametis, Rhinyptia, Oryctes, Phllognathus, Xylotrupes, Eophileurus, Anatona, Chiloloba, Schizonycha and Leucopholis representing one species each were recorded.  The dominance of Anomala and Holotrichia and other phytophagus scarab may be due to cropping pattern as these are mainly associated with sugarcane, potato, groundnut, jowar and maize.  The species predominance is directly correlated with the cropping pattern of that area and season.  Similar results were also found by Sreedevi et. al. (2017) who reported the dominant species Holotrichia nagpurensis, H. consanguinea, H. serrata, A. dimidiata and Lepidiota mansueta (Burmeister) in Uttar Pradesh associated with sugarcane.

As mentioned earlier, dung beetles are important decomposers and involved in nutrient recycling.  If they are extirpated, the Earth would pile up with manure and dung everywhere.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

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