Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2018 | 10(2): 11303–11311

 

 

 

 

Records of new larval host plants of some common butterflies of Bangladesh

 

Tahsinur Rahman Shihan

 

Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh

Permanent Address: Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga, Bangladesh

shihanrahman87@gmail.com

 

 

doi: http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3217.10.2.11303-11311

 

Editor: George Mathew, (Ex) Emeritus Scientist, KFRI, Peechi, India.        Date of publication: 26 February 2018 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 3217 | Received 13 April 2017 | Final received 31 January 2018 | Finally accepted 04 February 2018

 

Citation: Shihan, T.R. (2018). Records of new larval host plants of some common butterflies of Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(2): 11303–11311; http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3217.10.2.11303-11311

 

Copyright: © Shihan 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The author declares no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: Author is grateful to Mr. James J. Young of Hong Kong LepidopteristsÕ Society and the editors and reviewers of JoTT .

 

 

 

Abstract: This paper presents the record of Clausena heptaphylla (Roxburgh) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae) as a new larval host plant for Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758 and Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 (Papilionidae).  Ravenia spectabilis Engl. (Rutaceae) for Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 (Papilionidae). Hemigraphis hirta (Vahl) T. Anders. (Acanthaceae) is the new recorded host for Junonia almana (Linnaeus, 1758) and Junonia lemonis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae) from Chuadanga, Bangladesh.

 

Keywords: Clausena heptaphylla, Chuadanga, Hemigraphis hirta, Junonia almana, Junonia lemonias, Papilio demoleus, Papilio polytes, Ravenia spectabilis.

 

 

 

 

No extensive survey work has been carried out so far to find out the diversity of butterfly species in Bangladesh in relation to the associated plants, and records of larval host plants of butterflies are not so well documented in Bangladesh (Larsen 2004; Bashar et al. 2006; Chowdhury & Hossain 2013; Bashar 2014).  The main documentation was done by Bell (1911–1927), Kunte (2000, 2006) and (Mathew 2011) in the Indian region and it is followed for Bangladesh, so an opportunistic survey was conducted from February 2016 to November 2016 to document the larval host plants of butterflies in Chuadanga, Bangladesh (23.6312620N & 88.8483020E).  This district is situated in the southwestern part of Bangladesh.

During the survey period, the egg laying behavior of female butterflies on host plants and their immature stages were observed.  Many of the immature stages were collected and reared indoors in plastic containers under a controlled environment.  The boxes were covered with a thin cloth to allow for air movement and to protect the larvae from parasitoids.  The larvae were supplied with fresh young leaves and the containers were cleaned daily.  The plants were just provided with water within the glass box.  No food supplement was added. The eggs and larvae were reared till pupation and to adulthood.  Additionally, immature stages were also observed in the natural environment.  Immature stages and adult butterflies were identified according to: Tan 2011; Saji 2016; Saji et al. 2016a,b; and Saji & Karmakar 2016. Food plants were identified by the personal communication of Mr. Tapash Bardhan and Dr. Ahsan Habib and classification following ÔÕThe Plant ListÕÕ website (http://www.theplantlist.org).

The results and discussion about the records of new larval host plants of butterflies are given below:

 

1. Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758 (Papilionidae)

Papilio polytes is found commonly throughout Bangladesh including urban areas.  It inhabits gardens and other well-wooded areas, deciduous forests, semi-evergreen and evergreen forests.  It is abundant in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, but is known to occur throughout the year.  It occurs throughout the Oriental region (Kunte 2000; Varshney & Smetacek 2015).  The caterpillars eat a wide variety of plants of many genera, but they are all either large shrubs or small trees of the family Rutaceae (Kunte 2000).  Previously recorded larval host plants of this species are given in Table 1.

On 10 February 2016, a female Papilio polytes laid a single egg (Images 1 & 2) on the underside on a leaf of Clausena heptaphylla in a nursery in Islam Para, Chuadanga (23.6308100N & 88.8453830E). On 6th April 2016, the author observed a 4th instar larva (Images 3 & 4) feeding on the upperside on a leaf of C. heptaphylla of the same plant at the same place.  The larva was collected and reared.  The life cycle on C. heptaphylla is given in Images 1–7.

Clausena heptaphylla (Images 6 & 7) is a small bushy shrub growing 1–4m tall that grows in the forest and sometimes harvested in nurseries as an ornamental plant.  It has been recorded as a larval host plant of Red Helen (Papilio helenus) (Mathew 2011).  Although other species of the genus Clausena, viz., C. excavata and C. lansium, were recorded as larval host plants of P. polytes in Australia (http://en.butterflycorner.net/papilio-polytes), it is the first time that C. heptaphylla is recorded as a larval host plant.

 

2. Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 (Papilionidae)

Papilio demoleus is perhaps found in more diverse habitats than any other swallowtail (Kunte 2000).  It is found in savannahs, fallow lands and gardens and in semi-evergreen and evergreen forests.  It is found in large numbers along streams and river-banks.  It occurs throughout the year, but more commonly during the monsoon and post-monsoon months.  It is distributed in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar (Kehimkar 2008; Varshney & Smetacek 2015). It mainly prefers plants belonging to family Rutaceae as a larval host plant but is also known to feed on other plant families such as Rhamnaceae and Fabaceae (Kunte 2000; Kehimkar 2008).  The previously recorded larval host plants of this species are given in Table 1.

On 14 April 2016, two eggs were found on the underside of a mature leaf and buds of Clausena heptaphylla at Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga (23.6314540N & 88.8499590E).  Another newly laid egg (Image 8) on the upperside of leaf and four 1st instar larvae (Image 9) on young foliages were found on 18 April 2016 and a new egg were observed on the following day on the plant in the same place.  On 19 May 2016, one 2nd instar larva (Image 10) on the upperside of a mature leaf and on 21 May 2016, four 1st instar larvae were found on leaves of the same plant (Images 6 & 7).  The life cycle on Clausena heptaphylla is given in Images 8–19.

On 12 March 2016, a female was observed laying an egg (Image 21) on the young leaf of a young Ravenia spectabilis plant (Image 20) in the authorÕs house in Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga (23.6314540N & 88.8499590E).  Since then the author regularly observed the plant and from 22-25 May 2016 five larvae were found on the plant.  The larvae were kept on the plant in its natural condition and on 2 June 2016, only one 5th instar larva was left on the plant.  The larva successfully pupated and the adult emerged in a few days.  The life cycle on Ravenia spectabilis is given in Images 21–27.

 

3. Junonia almana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae)

Junonia almana is a very common butterfly distributed throughout the country.  It inhabits the plains and hilly forests.  It is most common on the plains and in forests up to an altitude of 4,000m.   The dry season form camouflages and blends very well with its surroundings when it settles among dry, fallen leaves with the underside of the wings exposed (Mathew 2011).  It is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan (Kehimkar 2008).  Earlier recorded larval host plants of this species are given in Table 1.

On 17 May 2016, a female was seen laying eggs (Image 28) on the underside of leaves and young stem of Hemigraphis hirta (Images 37, 38 & 39) at Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga (23.6314710N & 88.8499340E).  Immediately, two out of five eggs with the host plant were collected and placed in a plastic pot with water.  The eggs hatched after three days and took 19 days to complete their larval stage.  The adults emerged 10 days after pupation.  The lifecycle on Hemigraphis hirta is given in Images 28–36.

 

4. Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae)

Junonia lemonias is a common butterfly distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, western Malaysia, Philippines, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan (Kehimkar 2008).  It is seen in gardens, besides open farmlands and forest clearings.  It is on its wing throughout the year.  It is found up to 2000m in the hills. (Kehimkar 2008).  Previously recorded larval host plants of this species are given in Table 1.

A female was observed laying eggs on the underside of leaves of Hemigraphis hirta on 15 July 2016 at Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga (23.6314710N & 88.8499340E).  This time nine eggs were found and after a few minutes, the same female also laid eggs on the leaves, stem and flower buds of Ruellia prostrata (Acanthaceae).  Two eggs were collected with plants from Hemigraphis hirta and reared in a plastic pot with water.  Both eggs hatched after three days and pupated after 18 days.  Adult emerged nine to 10 days after pupation.  The lifecycle on Hemigraphis hirta is given in Images 39–42.

The new recorded larval host plants of Papilio polytes and P. demoleus indicate that these two species take on new larval food plants to extend and adapt to different habitats.  It is also true for Junonia almana and J. lemonias.  In this study, it clearly indicates that it could also be due to the fact that larval host plants are not properly recorded in Bangladesh and therefore, one might expect to find more host plants which have not been reported earlier.  Extensive field surveys might help in understanding the dietary breadth of butterflies locally.

 

 

 

Table 1. Earlier recorded larval host plants of Papilio polytes, Papilio demoleus, Junonia almana and Junonia lemonias

 

Butterfly name

Larval host plant name

Families

References

Papilio polytes

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corra

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011; Tan 2011; Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Atalantia ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv.

Rutaceae

van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Atalantia monophylla DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Atalantia racemosa Wight ex Hook.

Rutaceae

Kunte 2006; Mathew 2011

 

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Citrus aurantium L.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus hystrix DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Citrus medica L.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Citrus reticulate Blanco

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Citrus trifoliata L.

Rutaceae           

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Clausena excavata Burm. f.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Euodia meliifolia (Hance ex Walp.) Benth.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Glycosmis angustifolia Lindl. Ex Wight & Arn.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Glycosmis cochinchinensis (Lour.)

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Glycosmis mauritiana (Lam.) Tanaka

Rutaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Glycosmis parviflora (Sims) Little

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Limonia acidissima Groff

Rutaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Pleiospermium alatum (Wight & Arn.)

Rutaceae

van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Ravenia spectabilis Engl.

Rutaceae

Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Atalantia buxifolia (Poir.) Oliv. ex Benth.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

Rutaceae

Woodhouse 1949; Robinson et al. 2010; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) P. Wilson

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Saji & Karmakar 2016

 

Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Zanthoxylum culantrillo Kunth

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Zanthoxylum ovalifolium (Tutcher)

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

Papilio demoleus

Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corra

Rutaceae

Woodhouse 1949; Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Mathew 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji et al. 2016b

 

Atalantia buxifolia (Poir.) Oliv. ex Benth..

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Atalantia ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv.

Rutaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Chloroxylon swietenia DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji et al. 2016b

 

Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle

Rutaceae

Woodhouse 1949; Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Citrus aurantium L

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus hystrix DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus medica L.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Saji et al. 2016b

 

Citrus japonica Thunb.

Rutaceae

Kunte 2000

 

Citrus reticulata Blanco

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Clausena dentata (Willd.) Roem.

Rutaceae

Saji et al. 2016b

 

Clausena excavata Burm. f.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik.

Fabaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Fagraea crenulata Maingay ex C.B. Clarke

Loganiaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Flindersia brayleyana F. Muell.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Glycosmis parviflora (Sims) Little

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.

Rutaceae

Woodhouse 1949; Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011, Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji et al. 2016a

 

Limonia acidissima Groff

Rutaceae

Woodhouse 1949; van der Poorten & van der Poorten 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji et al. 2016b

 

Magnolia champaca var. pubinervia (Blume) Figlar & Noot.

Magnoliaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011; Saji et al. 2016b

 

Pamburus missionis (Wight) Swingle

Rutaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Psoralea leucantha F. Muell.

Leguminosae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Psoralea patens Lindl.

Leguminosae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Psoralea pinnata L.

Leguminosae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Psoralea tenax Lindl.

Leguminosae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Ruta angustifolia Pers.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Ruta graveolens L.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Tan 2011; Mathew 2011

 

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC.

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Zanthoxylum culantrillo Kunth

Rutaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

Rhamnaceae

Woodhouse 1949; Robinson et al. 2010; Saji et al. 2016b

Junonia almana

Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.

Amaranthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Antirrhinum majus L.

Scrophulariaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Barleria cristata L.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Saji 2016

 

Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Dyschoriste repens (Nees) Kuntze

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine

Acanthaceae

Mathew 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji 2016

 

Hygrophila costata Nees

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Hygrophila ringens var. ringens.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Lindernia anagallis (Burm.f.) Pennell

Linderniaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston

Linderniaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell

Linderniaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Lindernia microcalyx Pennell & StehlŽ

Linderniaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Lindernia pusilla (Willd.) Bold.

Linderniaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Mimosa pudica L.

Leguminosae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011

 

Mimulus gracilis R.Br.

Phyrmaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br..

Gramineae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

Verbenaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011;Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji 2016

 

Plantago major L.

Plantaginaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Ruellia repens L.

Acanthaceae

Tan 2011

 

Ruellia tuberosa L.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl

Verbenaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Strobilanthes japonica (Thunb.) Miq.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Strobilanthes oliganthus Miq.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Strobilanthes schomburgkii (Craib) J.R.I.Wood

Acanthaceae       

Robinson et al. 2010

Junonia lemonias

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

Amaranthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Barleria cristata L.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Saji et al. 2016a

 

Barleria prionitis L.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010, Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji et al. 2016a

 

Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Cannabis sativa L.

Cannabaceae

Mathew 2011; Saji et al. 2016a

 

Dyschoriste repens (Nees) Kuntze

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Eranthemum pulchellum Andrews

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Hygrophila costata Nees

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.)

Heine.

Acanthaceae

Mathew 2011; Jayasinghe et al. 2014; Saji et al. 2016a

 

Hygrophila ringens var. ringens

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Justicia procumbens L.

Acanthaceae

Saji et al. 2016a

 

Lepidagathis formosensis C.B. Clarke ex Hayata

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Lepidagathis incurva Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Lindernia rotundifolia (L.) Alston

Linderniaceae

Jayasinghe et al. 2014

 

Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011

 

Ophiorrhiza japonica Blume

Rubiaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

Verbenaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Ruellia tuberosa L.

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Ruellia simplex C.Wright

Acanthaceae

Saji et al. 2016a

 

Sida rhombifolia L.

Malvaceae

Robinson et al. 2010; Mathew 2011

 

Strobilanthes formosanus S. Moore

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

Strobilanthes schomburgkii (Craib) J.R.I.Wood

Acanthaceae

Robinson et al. 2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

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Bashar, M.A., M.A. Mamun, A.F.M. Aslam & A.K. Chowdhury (2006). Biodiversity maintenance and conservation of butterfly-plant association in some forests of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 34(1): 55–67.

Bell, T.R. (1911–1927). The common butterflies of the plains of India (including those met with in the hill stations of the Bombay presidency) Part 1–23. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 20(4)–26(3): 750–759.

Chowdhury, S.H. & M. Hossain (2013). Butterflies of Bangladesh-A Pictorial Handbook (Revised and enlarged version I). Skylark Printers, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 260pp.

Jayasinghe, H.D., S.S. Rajapaksha & C. de Alwis (2014). A compilation and analysis of food plants utilization of Sri Lankan butterflies larvae (Papilionoideae). Taprobanica 6(2): 110–131; http://doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v6i2.7193

Kehimkar, I. (2008). The Book of Indian Butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, Mumbai, India, 497pp.

Kunte, K. (2000). Butterflies of peninsular India. Indian academy of Sciences and Universities Press, Hyderabad, 254pp.

Kunte, K. (2006). Addition to known larval host plants of Indian butterflies. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 103(1): 119–122.

Larsen, T.B. (2004). Butterflies of Bangladesh - An Annotated Checklist. IUCN, Bangladesh, 158pp.

Mathew, G. (2011). A Handbook on the Butterflies of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Kerala Forest Research Institute. Thrissur, Kerala, India, 218pp.

Robinson, G.S., P.R. Ackery, I.J. Kitching, G.W. Beccaloni & L.M. Hern‡ndez (2010). HOSTS - A Database of the WorldÕs Lepidopteran Hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts. Accessed 20 November 2016

Saji, K. (2016). Junonia almana Linnaeus, 1758 - Peacock Pansy. In: Kunte, K., P. Roy, S. Kalesh and U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.24. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/sp/527/Junonia-almana Accessed 23 November 2016

Saji, K., A. Soman & S. Mazumder (2016a). Junonia lemonias Linnaeus, 1758 - Lemon Pansy. In: Kunte, K., P. Roy, S. Kalesh and U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.24. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/sp/772/Junonia-lemonias Accessed 23 November 2016

Saji, K., H. Ogale, A. Bora & P. Manoj (2016b). Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 - Lime Swallowtail. In: Kunte, K., P. Roy, S. Kalesh and U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.24. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/sp/602/Papilio-demoleus Accessed on 23 November 2016

Saji, K. & T. Karmakar (2016). Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758 - Common Mormon. In: Kunte, K., P. Roy, S. Kalesh and U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.24. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/sp/603/Papilio-polytes

Tan, H. (2011). Life History of the Peacock Pansy (Junonia almana javana) http://butterflycircle.blogspot.com/2011/05/life-history-of-peacock-pansy.html Accessed on 23 November 2016.

The Plant List (2013). http://www.theplantlist.org Accessed on 10 April 2017

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Varshney, R.K. & P. Smetacek (eds.) (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal and Indinov Publishing, New Delhi, ii+261pp.

Woodhouse, L.G.O. (1949). The Butterfly Fauna of Ceylon, Second Complete Edition. The Colombo ApothecariesÕ Co. Ltd., Colombo, 231pp.